M.Sc. Part-I Prospectus No. 2007125
sant gadge baba AMRAVATI UNIVERSITY
(FACULTy OF SCIENCE)
Master of Science Examination
Part-I and Part-II, 2007
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Sullabus prescribed for
M.Sc. I year (Chemistry)
The curriculum development center programme was taken up by the U.G.C. unreadier to promote excellence in Tecaching U.G. and P.G. level and a document was prepared by distinguished academics of national level and was discussed by larger group.
As per the report of curriculum development center of U.G.C. it is proposed to have the following pattern for the Teaching and Examiantion at M.Sc. I & II level. According to U.G.C. guide lines the expected working days for teaching are 180 days or 30 weeks.
It is proposed to have four theory papers, in addition to Lab courses at M.Sc.-I & II levels. Total teaching hours per week will be 36 hours. The distribution shall be as under.
Theory : 4 Papers with 4 lectures per week = 16 lectures
Practical : 6 Lab sessions of 3 hours each = 18 hours.
Supplementary: For problem solving = 2 hours.
teaching sessions, seminars,
quizzes, evaluation extra
attention and coaching to
weaker students etc.
Thus, total yearly work load is of 1080 hours which is as per UGC recommendations.
Study tour : Educational / Industrial tour is compulsory for M.Sc.Part-I & Part-II students as below :
i) M.Sc.Part-I : Visit to local industry.
ii) M.Sc.Part-II : Education tour to visit the industry.
Syllabus prescribed for M.Sc.Part-I & II
There shall be following papers and practicals for M.Sc.Part-I & II examination and examinees will be required to pass in the written and practical examination separately.
There shall be four compulsory papers in theory as stated below and practical examination extending over not less than twenty four hours (Inorganic 7-11 hours, Organic 6-8 hours, and physical 6-8 hours). Every examinee shall offer the following four papers of the general standard of the Practical Examinaion.:-
Paper-I Inorganic Chemistry 75 Marks
Paper-II Organic Chemistry 75 Marks
Paper-III Physical Chemistry 75 Marks
Paper-IV General Chemistry 75 Marks
The practical examination will be in the branches of Chemistry stated above. The total marks allotted for practical examination 200 i.e. 70 marks for Inorganic, 65 marks each for Organic and Physical. The distribution of marks of Practical examination will be as under.
N.B. :- Experiments may be performed by microscale techniques.
Practical I : (Inorganic Chemistry)
1. Exercise 55 Marks
2. Record 10 Marks
3. Viva Voce 05 Marks
Total 70 Marks
Practical II (Organic Chemistry) & Practical-III (Physical Chemistry) each.
1. Exercise 50 Marks
2. Record 10 Marks
3. Viva Voce 05 Marks
Total 65 Marks
i) Four papers of 75 marks each.
ii) There shall be two practicals at M.Sc.Part-II level i.e. practical-I is compulsory for all which will be of 50 marks based on analytical techniques of duration 6 to 8 hours (one day). Practical-II is of 150 marks and will be based on specialization (Physical, Organic, Inorganic, Industrial etc.) of duration 14-16 hours (two days.)
iii) Experiments may be performed by microscale techniques.
M.Sc. I year.
120 hrs (4 hrs/week), 24 hrs/unit 75 Marks
A) Stereochemistry and Bonding in Main Group Compounds. 6 L
Short comings of VSEPR model. Bent rule and energetics of hybridization, some simple reactions of covalently bonded molecules, d-orbital participation by non metals.
B) Molecular orbital Theory: 6 L
Molecular orbital representation of polyatomic molecules with special reference to C2H4, C2H6 and CO and delocalized molecular orbitals of Ozone, Carbon dioxide, Nitrite, Nitrate and Benzene.
C) Metal clusters: 12 L
Boron hydrides: Classification, nomenclature, structure, bonding and topology of boranes, 4-digit coding (s,t,y,x) numbers for B2H6, B4H10, B5H9, B5H11 and B6H10 and their utilities.Acquaintance with metalloboranes, Carboranes and Metallocarboranes. Metal clusters : Synthesis, reactivity and bonding, metal carbonyl compounds with metal-metal multiple bonds, Isopoly and Hereropoly acids.
A) Symmetry and Group theory 12 L
Symmetry elements and symmetry operations, symmetry groups or point groups, Schoenflies symbols, point group classification, matrix representation of symmetry operations, identification of point groups (Cn/Cnv/Cnh/Dnh/Td, Oh etc), necessary conditions for any set of elements to form a group, subgroups, classes in a group, representation of groups. Character of a representation, reducible and irreducible representations. The great orthogonality theorem (without proof) and its importance. Derivation of character tables of C2V, C3V . 4 L
B) Coordination Model for Non-aqueous solvent behaviour. Inorganic reactions in the following non-aqueous solvents: Dinitrogen tetroxide, anhydrous sulphuric acid, bromine trifluoride and reaction in molten salts. 8 L
C) Metal-Ligand equilibria in solution.: Stability of complex ions in solution. Basic principles, Mathematical function and their interrelationship, trends in stepwise constant, factors affecting the stability of metal complexes with reference to the nature of metal ion and ligand, Statistical, electrostatics, chelate effect and its Thermodynamic origin (DG, DS, DH). Determination of binary formation constants by spectrophotometric methods (Jobs and Mole ratio), Bjerrums PH metric method, Polarographic method and Conductometric method.
Unit-III 16 L
A) Metal ligand Bonding: Limitation of crystal field theory. Structural effects of orbital splitting, Jahn-Teller effects and distortions in octahedral complexes. Thermodynamic effects. Ligand field theory (LFT), Experimental evidences in support of metal ligand orbital overlaps. Adjusted crystal field theory (ACFT). Molecular Orbital Theory: Ligand group orbitals, Sigma and Pi-molecular orbitals, Qualitative treatment of MOT of Octahedral Complexes with Sigma bonding and also with Sigma and Pi bonding. Qualitative MO diagrams and their interpretation of octahedral, tetrahedral and square planer complexes with example and electronic spectra of coodination complexes.
C) Magnetochemisty: 8 L
Concept of Magnetic susceptibility, types of magnetic bodies, Temperature dependence of Paramagnetism, Highspin-lowspin crossover, spin equillibria of complexes in solid and solutions. Anamolous magnetic moments. Spin orbit coupling Magnetic exchange coupling (binuclear system).
Reaction Mechanism of Transition Metal complexes. 24 L
Reactivity of metal complexes, ligand replacement reactions: classification of mechanisms and energy profile of a reaction. Inert and labile complexes, interpretation of lability and inertness of transition metal complexes on the basis of VBT and CFT. Kinetics of octahedral substitution, acid hydrolysis, factors affecting acid hydrolysis, base hydrolysis, conjugate base mechanism, direct and indirect evidences in favour of conjugate mechanism, anation reaction, reactions without metal ligand bond cleavage. Substitution reaction in square planer complexes: the trans effect, Trans effect theoris, mechanism of the substitution reaction Redox reaction; electron transfer reactions, mechanism of one electron transfer reactions, outer sphere reactions, tunnelling effect, cross reaction, Marcus-Hush theory, inner sphere type reactions; bridged activated mechanism. Photochemical reactions of Chromium and Ruthenium complexes.
Unit -V 14 L
A) Metal Pi Complexes: Metal carbonyls: Structure and bonding, vibrational spectra of metal carbonyls for bonding and structure elucidation, important reactions of metal carbonyls. Metal nitrosyls: Nitrosylating agents for synthesis of metal nitrosyls, vibrational spectra and X-ray diffraction studies of transition metal nitrosyls for bonding and structure elucidation, important reactions of transition, dinitrogen and dioxygen complexes; Wilkinsons catalyst and Vaskas compound. Fluxional molecules 10 L
B) Synthesis, Structural and bonding in Olefine Complexes, Allyl Complexes and Sandwich compounds. Organo metallic reagents in Organic Synthesis and in homogeneous catalytic reactions (Hydrogenation, Hydroformylation, Isomerisation and Polymerisation). Activation of small molecules by co-ordination. Organocopper in Organic Synthesis. Transition metal Compounds with bonds to hydrogen.
List of Books:
01] S.F.A.Kettle, J.N.Murrall and s.T.Teddler : Valency Theory
02] C.A.Coulson : Valency
03] J.E.Huheey : Inorganic Chemistry
04] F.A.Cotton and G.Wilkinson : Advanced Inorganic Chemistry 3rd, 5th & 6th Editions.
05] A.F.Willims : Theoreotical Approach in Inorganic Chemistry
06] A.Manas Chandra : Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding
07] L.E.Orgel : An Introduction to transition metal Chemistry, Ligand field Theory 2nd Ed.
08] J.J.Logowski : Modern Inorganic Chemistry
09] Durrant and Durrant : Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
10] J.C.Bailar : Chemistry of Co-ordination compounds.
11] W.L.Jolly : Modern Inorganic Chemistry
12] R.S.Drago : Physical Methods in Inorganic Chemistry
13] Waddington : Non-aqueous solvents systems.
14] Sisler : Chemistry of Non-aqueous solvents.
15] A.K.Barnard : Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry
16] Emeleus & Sharpe : Modern aspects of Inorganic Chemistry
17] F.A.Cotton : Chemical Applications of Group Theory
18] Jones : Elementary Co-ordination Chemistry
19] B.N.Figgis : Introduction to Ligand Field
20] S.F.A.Kettle : Co-ordination Chemistry
21] Day and Selbin : Theoretical Inorganic Chemstry
22] J.Lewin and Wilkins : Modern Co-ordination Chemistry
23] Gowarikar, Vishwanathan & Sheedar : Polymer Science
24] H.H.Jattey and M.Orchin : Symmetry in Chemistry
25] Purcell and Kotz : Inorganic Chemistry
26] D.Schonaland : Molecular Symmetry in Chemistry
27] L.H.Hall : Group Theory and Symmetry in Chemistry
28] D.Banerjea : Coordination Chemistry Tata Mc.Graw Publication
29] A.F.Wells : Structural Inorganic Chemistry, Vth edition Oxford
30] S.G.Davies : Organotransition Metal Chemistry Application to Organic Synthesis.
31] R.C.Mehrotra : Organometallic Chemistry, Tata Mc Graw Publication Hill.
32] G.S.Manku : Theoretical Principles of Inorganic Chemistry.
33] A.B.P.Lever : Inorganic Electronic Spectroscopy
34] Dutta and Symal : Elements of Magnetochemistry.
35] Synthesis and Chacterisation of some novel nitrosyls compounds, R.C.Maurya, Pioneer Publication Jabalpur, 2000.
36] The Organometallic Chemistry of the T metals, R.H. Crabtree, John Wiley.
37] Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy and Related Techniques.-D.N.Satyanarayan, University Press.
38] Bio-Inorganic Chemistry : Inorganic Elements in the Chemistry of Life - Wolfgang Kaim and B.Schwe dersky, John Willey.
39] Chemistry of Advanced Materials An overview- L.V. Internate & M.J.Hompden -Smith Willey UCH.
40] Organometallics I & II complexes with transition metal-carbon bonds -Manfred Bochmann-oxford press.
41] Advanced Inorganic Chemistry Vol.I & II - Satya Prakash, Tuli, Basu and Madan-S.Chand".
Practical Inorganic Chemistry
Practical Workload 6Hours/Week
Duration: 7-11 Hrs 70 Marks
I) Preparation of inorganic compounds and their characterization by elemental analysis, MW determination, decomposition temperatures and molar conductance studies. (Minimum 6)
1. [VO (acac)2] (acac=acetyl acetone)
2. cisK [Cr(C2O4)2(H20)2]
3. Na [Cr(NH3)2(SCN)4]
4. Mn (acac)3
5. K3 [Fe(C2O4)3]
6. Hg [Co (SCN)4]
7. [Co (Py)2 Cl2]
8. TiO(C9H8NO)2 (H2O)2
9. cis[Co(trine)(NO2)2]Cl H2O
11. K3[Al(C2O4)3] (H2O)3
II) A) Quantitative Analysis of mixture of two cations:
Quantitative analysis of binary mixture of cations involving their chemical separation and separate analysis of one cation by gravimetry and another by volumetric or colorimetric. Certain model examples are given below;
i) Copper (II) and Nickel (II)
ii) Copper (II) and Zinc (II)
iii) Nickel (II) Zinc (II)
iv) Copper (II) Iron (III)
B) Analysis of Lime Stone and Dolomite
III) Qualitative analysis of Radicals
Qualitative analysis of inorganic mixture for a total of five radicals including interfering radicals (not more than one such radical in a mixture), rare earth (not more than two rare earth in a mixture) and combination of cations (minimum 8 mixtures).
Cations: Mercury (I,II), Pb, Ag, Bi (III), Cu (II), Cd (II), As (IV,V), Sb (IV,V), Sn (II,IV), Fe (III), Al (III), Cr (III), Ni(II), Co(II) Mn(II), Zn(II), Barium, Strontium, Calcium and Magnesium.
Interfering radicals: Phosphate, Oxalate, Fluoride and Borate.
Rare Earth : Tl, MO, W, Se, Ti, Zr, Th, V, U, Ce.
List of Books for Practical :
1) Synthesis and characterization of Inorganic
Compounds, W.L.Jolly, Prentice Hall.
2) Inorganic Experiments, J.Derck Woollins, VCH.
3) Practical Inorganic Chemistry, G.Marrand, B.W. Rockett, Van Nostrand.
4) A.I.Vogel, A Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis.
5) F.Laschka : EDTA Titrations.
6) Willard, Merit and Dean, Instrmental Method of Analysis.
7) King : Inorganic Systhesis
8) Yelri Lalikov : Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis.
Distribution of Marks
1. Exercise I (Estimation) - 30
2. Qualitative analysis - 15
3. Preparation and analysis of Complex - 10
4. Practical Records - 10
5. Viva-Voce - 05
Total - 70
120 Hours (4-Hours/week) 75 Marks 24 Hours/Unit
Unit-I: A) Nature of Bonding in Organic Molecule : 24 L
Delocalized chemical bonding, conjugation, cross conjugation, resonance, hyper conjugation, bonding in fullerenes, tautomerism.
Aromaticity in benzenoid and non-benzenoid compounds, alternant and non alternant hydrocarbons, Huckels rule, energy level of pi-molecular orbitals, annulenes, anti aromaticity si-aromaticity, homo aromaticity, Aromatic Character and Chemistry of cyclopentadiens anion tropilium cation, tropene and tropotene.
B) Stereochemistry :
Conformational analysis of Cycloalkanes (5-8 membered rings) decalines, effect of conformation on reactivity, steric strain due to unavoidable crowding.
Elements of symmetry, chirality, molecules with more than one chiral center, threo and erythro isomers, methods of resolution, optical purity, enantiotopic and distereotopic atoms, groups and faces, stereospecific and stereoselective synthesis. Asymmetrical synthesis. Optical activity in absence of chiral carbon (biphenyl, allenes and spiranes) Stereochemistry of the compounds containing N, P and Sulphur.
Unit-II: A) Reaction Mechanism : Structure and Reactivity. 24L
Types of mechanism, types of reactions, thermodynamics and kinetics requirements, kinetic and thermodynamic control, Hammonds postulate, Curtin-Hammett principle, Potential energy diagrams, transition states and intermediates, methods of determining mechanisms, isotope effects.
Efect of structure on reactivity Resonance and field effects, steric effect, quantitative treatment. The Hammett equation and linear free energy relationship, substituent and reaction constants, Taft equation.
C) Reactive Intermediates
Classical and non-classical carbocations, carbanions, radical anions and radical cations, carbenes, arynes ad nitrenes. General methods of generation, detection and reactivity of these intermediates. Singlet oxygen, its generation and reactions with organic substrates.
UNIT-III: A) Aliphatic Nucleophilic Substitution. 24L
The SN2, SN1, mixed SN1 and SN2 and SET and SNI mechanisms. Nucleophilicity, effect of leaving group, ambient nucleophiles and ambient substrates regiospecificity. The neighbouring group participation mechanism. Substitution at allylic and vinylic carbon atoms. Dehydration using DCC, Meyllers synthesis of aldehydes ketones and acids.
B) Aromatic Nucleophilic Substitution :
A general introduction to different mechanisms of aromatic nucleophilic substitution SNAr, SN1, benzene and SRN1 mechanisms. Reactivity effect of substrate structure, leaving group and attacking nucleophile. The Von Richter, Sommlet-Hauser and Smiles rearrangements.
C) Elimination Reactions :
The E1, E2 and E1cB mechanisms. Orientation of the double bond. Saytzeff and Hoffmanns rule. Effect of substrate structure, attacking base, leaving group and medium. Pyrolytic elimination mechanism and orientation. Cleavage of quaternary ammonium salts, conversion of vicinal dihalides and nitro compounds to alkenes.
UNIT-IV A) Aromatic Electrophillic Substitution. 24L
The arenium ion mechanism, orientation and reactivity, energy profile diagrams. The o/p ratio, ipso attack, orientation in benzene ring with more than one substituent, orientation in other ring system. Diazonium coupling, Vilsmeir reaction, Gattermann-Koch reaction, Pechmann reaction. Houben-Hoesch reaction.
B) Addition to carbon-carbon Multiple Bond
Mechanistic and stereochemical aspects of addition reactions involving electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals, region and chemo selectivity. Orientation and stereochemistry. Addition to cyclopropanes, Hydrogenation of double and triple bonds. Hydrogenation of aromatic rings, Hydroboration, Michel reaction.
C) Addition to Carbon-Heteroatom multiple Bonds.
Mannich reaction, Lithium-Aluminium Hydride reductions of carbonyl compounds, nitriles Reformatsky reaction, Aldol condensation, Knovenagel reaction, Perkin, Wittig, Stobbe reaction. Hydrolysis of esters and amide, ammonolysis of esters.
UNIT-V : A) Free Radical Reactions : 24L
Types of Free radical reactions, free radical substitution mechanism at an aromatic substrate, aliphatic substrate, reactivity at a bridgehead positions. Neighboring group assistance. Reactivity for aliphatic and aromatic substrates, reactivity in attacking radicals, effect of solvent on reactivity.
Halogenation at an alkyl carbon, allylic carbon, hydroxylation at aromatic carbon by means of Fentons reagent. Oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. Chlorosulphonation (Reed reaction) Coupling of alkynes and arylation of aromatic compounds by diazonium salts. Sand Meyer reaction, Free radical rearrangement, Hunsdiecker reaction.
B) Mechanism of Molecular Rearrangements :
Classification and General mechanistic treatment of electrophilic, nucleophilic and free radical molecular rearrangements. Mechanism of the following rearrangements Wagner-Meerwin, Pinacol-Pinacolone, Tiffenev-Demjnov ring expansion, Favorski, Wolff, Fristsch-Butenbeg-Wichel, Curtis, Lossen, Beckmann, Hoffmann, Schimidt rearrangements.
Organic Chemistry Practical.
Practical Work Load Practical Work Load
Total Hours : 180 Hours. 6 Hours/week
Time : 6 to 8 Hours Marks : 65
UNIT-I :Qualitative Analysis. :
Separation, purification and identification of the componenets of binary organic mixture (liquid-liquid; liquid-solid and solid-solid) using chemical analysis (minimum 10-12 mixtures)
UNIT-II :Organic Synthesis :
Student is expected to carry out minimum of 8-10 organic preparation (involving two steps) from the following list.
1) Preparation of Benzanilide from Benzophenone.
2) Preparation of p-nitroaniline from Acetanilide.
3) Preparation of p-Bromoaniline from Acetanilide.
4) Preparation of m-Nitroaniline from Nitrobenzene
5) Preparation of p-Chlorotoluene from p-Toluidine.
6) Preparation of p-nitrobenzonic acid from p-Nitrotoluene.
7) Cannizzaros reaction with 4-Chlorobenzaldehyde as a substrate.
8) Preparation of 2-Phenylindole (Fischer-Indole synthesis)
9) Claisen - Schmidt : Dibenzal acetone from benzaldehyde.
10) Preparation of Anthranilic acid (Hoffmans bromamide reaction)
11) Diels-Alder reaction : Anthracene + Maleic anhydride.
12) Methyl-organe from Sulphanilic acid.
13) Hydroquinone to 2,5-Dihydroxyacetophenone.
14) Chlorobenzene to 2, 4 Dinitrophenylhydrazine.
15) Nitrobenzene to p-Aminophenol.
UNIT-III Quantitative Analysis :-
Student is expected to carry out following estimations (Minimums 6 estimations.)
1) Estimation of Vitamin C Idometricaly.
2) Estimation of Phenol by KBrO3-KBr
3) Estimation of Amines by Bromate / Bromide solution.
4) Estimation of Formaldehyde Iodometricaly.
5) Estimation of Glucose by Benedicts solution.
6) Estimation of given carbonyl compound by hydrazone formation.
7) Estimation of Aldehyde by Oxidation method.
8) Determination of the percentage of number of hydroxyl group in
an organic compound by acetylation method.
Distribution of Marks :
UNIT-I 15 Marks
UNIT-II 20 Marks
UNIT-III 15 Marks
Practical Record 10 Marks
Viva voce 05 Marks
Total : 65 Marks
120 Hours (4-Hours/week) 75 Marks 24 Hours/Unit
UNIT-I Quantum Chemistry :
A) Discussion of solutions of Schrodinger equation to some model systems viz., particles in a three dimensional box, the harmonic oscilltor, the rigid rotor. The variation theorem, linear variation principle. Perturbation theory (first order & non degenerate). Application of variation method & perturbation theory to the Helium atom. 6L
B) Ordinary angular momentum, generalized angular momentum, eigen functions for angular momentum, eigen value of angular momentum, operator using ladder operators, addition of angular momenta, spin, antisymmetry & Pauli exclusion principle. Russell-Saunders terms and coupling schemes, Slater-Condon parameters, spin-orbint coupling and Zeeman splitting. 8L
C) Molecular Orbital Theory : Basic ideas-criteria for forming M.O. from A.O. constructuion of M.Os. by LCAO-H2+ ion, calculation of energy level from wave functions, physical picture of bonding, antibonding wave functions, concept of orbitals and their characteristics. Hybrid orbitals-sp, sp2, sp3, calculation of coefficient of A Os used in these Hybrid Orbitals. Hucklel theory of conjugated systems, bond order & charge density calculations. Applications to ethylene, butadiene, cyclopropenyl radical, cyclo butadiene. 10L
UNIT-II : Thermodynamics :
A) Classical Thermodynamics : Partial molar properties, Partial molar free energy, Chemical Potential, Partial molar volume and Partial molar heat content and their significances. Determination of these quantities. Concept of fugacity and determination of fugacity.
Non-ideal systems : Excess functions of non-ideal solutions. Activity, activity coefficients, Debye-Huckel theory for activity coefficient of electrolytic solutions; Determination of activity & activity coefficients; ionic strength. Application of phase rule to three componenet systems; second order phase transitions. 8L
B) Non Equilibrium Thermodynamic : Thermodynamic criteria for non-equillibrium states, entropy production and entropy flow for different irreversible processes (e.g. heat flow, chemical reaction, coupled reactions, electrochemical reactions). Transformations of the generalized fluxes and forces, phenomenological equations, microscopic reversibility and Onsagers reciprocity relations, electrokinetic phenomena. 6L
C) Statistical Thermodynamics : Concept of Distribution Thermodynamic Probability and most probable distribution. Ensemable averaging, postulates of ensemble averaging. Canonical, grand canonical and microcanonical ensembles, corresponding distribution laws (using Lagranges method of undetermined multipliers).
Partition function Translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic partition functions, calculation of thermodynamic properties in terms of partition functions. Applications of partition functions. 10L
UNIT-III: Chemical Dynamics :
A) Theories of reaction rates : Collision theory of raction rates, steric factor, Activated complex theory, ionic reactions, kinetic salt effects, Dynamics molecular motions, probing of transition state, dynamics of barrierless chemical reactions in solutions. Dynamics of unimolecular reactions (Lindeman-Hinshelwood and RRKM theories). 10L
B) Compelx Reaction : (hydrogen-bromine thermal reaction), photochemical reactions (hydrogen-bromine and Hydrogen-chlorine reactions), oscillatory reactions (Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction), homogeneous catalysis, kinetics of enzyme reactions. 8L
C) Fast reactions : General features of fast reactions, Stopped flow method, relaxation method, nuclear magnetic resonance method, flash photolysis. 6L
UNIT-IV : Surface Chemistry :
A) Adsorption : Freundlich adsorption isotherm, Langmuir adsorption isotherm, Gibbs adsorption isoherms, estimation of surface area (BET equation), surface films on liquids (Electro-kinetic phenomenon), catalytic activity at surfaces. 8L
B) Micelles : Surface active agents, classification of Surface active agents, micellization, hydrophobic interaction, critical micellar concentration (CMC), factors affecting the CMC of surfactants, counter ion binding to micelles, thermodynamics of micellization-phase separation & mass models, solubilization, micro emulsion, reverse micelles. 8L
C) Macromolecules : Polymer-defination, types of polymers, electrically conducting, fire resistant, liquid crystal polymers, kinetics of polymerization, mechanism of polymerization. Molecular mass, number & mass average molecular mass, molecular mass determination (Osmometry, Viscometry, Sedimentation and light scattering methods) chain configuration of macromolecules, calculation of average dimensions of various chain structures, Evaluation of extent of hydration of biopolymers. 8L
UNIT-V : Electrochemistry :
A) Electrochemistry of solutions : Debye-Huckel-Onsager treatment and its extension, ion solvent interactions. Thermodynamics of electrified interface equations. Derivation of elecro-capillarity, Lippmann equations (surface excess) methods of determination. Structure of electrified interfaces. Guoy-Chapman, Stern, Over potentials, exchange current density, derivation of Butler-Volumer equation, Tafel plot. Quantum aspects of charge transfer at electrodes-solution interfaces, quantization of charge transfer, tunneling. 10L
B) Semiconductor Interfaces : Theory of double layer at semiconductor, elecrolyte solution interfaces, structure of double layer interfaces. Effect of light at semiconductor solution interface. 6L
C) Electrocatalysis : Influence of various parameters. Hydrogen electrode. Bioelectrochemistry, threshould membrane phenomena, Nernst-Planck equation, core conductor models, electrocardiography. Polarography theory, Ilkovic equation; half wave potential and its significance. Introduction to corrosion, homogenous theory, forms of corrosion, corrosion monitoring and prevention methods. 8L
List of Books :
1] Physical Chemistry, P.W.Atkins, 6th Edition, ELBS.
2] Introduction to Quantum Chemistry, A.K.Chandra, Tata McGraw Hill, 1989.
3] Quantum Chemistry, Ira N., Levine, Prentice Hall, 1995.
4] Modern Quantum Chemistry, A Szabo and N.S. Ostlund, McGraw Hill, 1989.
5] Molecular Quantum Mechanics, Vol. I & II, P.W. Atkins, Oxford University Press,1970.
6] Statistical Thermodynamics, T.L. Hill, Addison Wesley, 1960.
7] Chemical Thermodynamics, F.T.Wall, W.H. Freeman and Co., 1965.
8] Irreversible Thermodynamics Theory and Applications, K.S. Forland, T.Forland, S.K.Ratje, John Wiley, 1988.
9] Chemical Kinetics, K.J. Laidler, 3rd Edition, Harper and Row, 1987.
10] Chemical Kinetics, A Study of reaction rates in solution, K.A.Conors, V.C.H. Publications, 1990.
11] Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics, J.I.Steinfeld, J.S.Francisco and W.I.Hase, Prentice Hall, 1989.
12] Kinetics and Mechanism of Chemical Transformation, J.Rajaraman and J.Kuriacose, McMillan.
13] Molecular Reaction Dynamics and Chemical Reactivity, R.D.Levine and R.B. Bernstein, Oxford University Press, 1987.
14] Adsorption and catalysis by solids, D.K.Chakrabarty, Wiley Eastern, 1990.
15] The theory of adsorption and catalysis, A. Clark, Academic Press, 1970.
16] Micelles, Theoretical and Applied Aspects, V.Moroi, Plenum.
17] Introduction to Polymer Science, V.R.Gowarikar, N.V.Vishwanathan & J.Sridhar, Wiley Eastern.
18] Polymer Science and Material, Tobolsky, Wiley Interscience, 1972.
19] Polymer Science, F.Billemeyer, Wiley, 1970.
20] 2000 Solved problems, Clyder, Metz.
21] Modern Electrochemistry, Vol.1 & Vol.2 J.O.M. Bockris & A.K.N. Reddy, Plenum.
22] Theoretical Electrochemistry, D.I.Antropov, Mir Publishers, 1972.
23] Electrochemistry, J.Dvorak, J.Koryta, V.Bohackova, Methuen & Co. Ltd.
24] Physical Chemistry Alberty & Silby, John Wiley.
25] Physical Chemistry A molecular approach, D. Mcquiarrie and Johnsiman, Viva Publication, New Delhi.
26] Essentials of Quantum Chemistry Anant Raman, National Book Trust.
Practical Workload 6 Hours/Week
Duration : 6 Hrs. Marks : 65
Part-A : Use of Computer Programmes 10 Terms of Practical.
Treatment of Experimental data, Execution of linear regression, X-Y plot, programmes with data preferably from physical chemistry laboratory. Numerical integration and differentiation as well as differential equation solution programmes. Monte Carlo and method of least square. Students will operate two packages I) word processing software MS-WORD, & II) spread sheet software MS-Excel.
Part-B : Error Analysis and Statistical Data Analysis.
Error, types of errors, minimization of errors, error distribution curves, precision, accuracy, and combination; statistical treatment for error analysis, student t test, null hypothesis, rejection criteria, F & Q test.
A list of experiments under different headings is given below. Students are required to perform all experiments.
1) To study the surface tension-concentration relationship for solution (Gibbs Equation)
Phase Equillibria :
1] Determination of congruent composistion and temperature of a binary system (Diphenylamine-benzophenone)
2] Determination of transition temperature of a given hydrated salt (CaCl2 4H2O) conductometrically.
3] To construct the phase diagram for three component system (CHCl3 Acetic acid Water)
Chemical Kinetics :
1] Determination of effect of (a) Change of temperature (b) Change of Concentration of reactant and catalyst and (c) Ionic strength of the media on the rate constant of hydrolysis of ester / ionic reactions.
2] Determination of rate constant of hydrolysis of an ester / ionic reaction in micellar media.
3] Determination of rate constant for the oxidation of iodide ions by hydrogen peroxide studying the kinetics as an iodine clock reaction.
4] Flowing clock reaction.
5] Determination of the primary salt effect on the kinetics of ionic reactions and testing of the Bonsted relationship (Iodide ion is oxidized by persulphate ion)
6] Oscillatory reaction.
1] Determination of molecular weight of non-volatile and non-electrolyte / electrolyte by cryoscopic method and to determine the activity coefficient of an electrolyte.
2] Determination of degree of dissociation of weak electrolyte and to study the deviation from ideal behavior that occurs with a strong electrolyte.
A) Conductometry :
1] Determination of rate constant, order of reaction and energy of activation for saffonification of ethyl acetate by sodium hydroxide conductometrically.
2] Determination of solubility and solubility product of sparingly soluble salts (PbSO4, BaSO4) conductometrically.
3] Determination of the strength of strong and weak acid in given mixture conductometrically.
4] To study the effect of solvent on the conductance of AgNO3 / Acetic acid and to determine degree of dissociation and equilibrium constant in different solvents and in their mixtures (DMSO, DMF, Dioxane, Acetone, Water) and to test the validity of Debye-Huckel-Onsager theory.
5] Determination of the activity coefficient of Zinc ions in the solution of 0.002 M Zinc Sulfate using Debye-Huckels limiting law.
B) Potentiometry / pH metry :
1] Determination of strength of halides in a mixture potentiometrically.
2] Determination of the valency of the mercurus ion potentiometrically.
3] Determination of strength of strong and weak electrolyte in a given mixture using a potentiometer / pH meter.
4] Determination of temperature dependence of EMF of a cell.
5] Determination of the formation constant of Silver-Ammonia complex and stoichiometry of the complex potentiometrically.
6] Acid-Base titration in a non-aqueous media potentiometrically. (Determination of dissociation constant of acetic acid in DMSO, DMF, Acetone and Dioxane by titrating it with KOH).
7] Determination of activity and activity coefficient of electrolytes.
8] Determination of the dissociation constant of monobasic / dibasic acid by Albert-Serjeant method.
9] Determination of thermodynamic constants and for the reaction by EMF method.
Zn + H2SO4 Zn SO4 + H2
1) Determination of rate constant for hydrolysis / inversion of cane sugar using a polarimeter.
2) Enzyme kinetics-inversion of sugar.
Distribution of Marks.
1] Exercise on Part-A 10 Marks
2] Exercise on Part-B 40 Marks
3] Practical Record 10 Marks
4] Viva voce 05 Marks
Total 65 Marks
Books Suggested :
1] Findleys Practical Physical Chemistry, B.P.Levitt, Longman.
2] Practical Physical Chemistry, A.M.James and F.E.Prichanrd, Longman.
3] Experimental Physical Chemistry, R.C.Das and B.Behra, Tata McGraw Hill.
4] Advanced Physical Chemistry Experiments, Gurtu-Gurtu, Pragati Prakashan.
5] Experimental Physical Chemistry, V.D.Athawale and Parul Mathur, New Age International.
6] Advanced Practical Physical Chemistry, J.B.Yadao, Goel Pub.Hosue.
7] Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Dr.D.V.Jahagirdar.
8] Systematic Experimental Physical Chemistry, Dr.T.K.Chondhekar & S.W.Rajbhoj
9] Experiments in Physical Chemistry, D.P.Shoemaker.
(Paper-IV) General Chemistry
120 hrs (4-hrs/week) , 24 hrs/Unit 75 Marks
Unit I 12 L
A) Role of analytical chemistry: classification of analytical methods classical and instrumental. Types of instrumental analysis. Selecting an analytical method. Laboratory operations and practices. Analytical balances (Semimicro and Micro balance) and their use in analytical chemistry. Techniques of weighing and errors. Volumetric glassware cleaning and calibration of glassware. Methods of sampling, Problems associated with sampling. Techniques of sampling of liquids, solids and particulates. Stoichiometric calculations based on gravimetry and titrimetry analysis of commercial samples. Transmission and storage of samples. Effects of sampling uncertainties samplers responsibility, sampling hazards. 12 L
B) Statistical Analysis: (Emphasis should be placed on numerical problems) Collection, treatment and presentation of analytical data. True, standard and observed value. Definition of terms in mean and median. Errors in Chemical analysis, classification of errors, nature and origin of errors. Accuracy and precision. Average deviation and standard deviation and its physical significance. Normal Distribution curve and its properties. Co-efficient of variation. Confidence limit and probability. Probability theorem, Probability curves, Comparison of analytical results. Tests for rejection of data. T-Test, F-test and Q-Test. Significant figures and computation rules. Least squares method for deriving calibration graph. Curve fitting, Correlation co-efficient. Limit of detection. Regression analysis and Statistical analysis of Chemical analysis.
Modern methods of separation: 8 L
A. Chromatography : General principles, Classification, Partition Chromatography, Adsorption Chromatography. Principles, Techniques and applications of Paper, Thin-layer, Column, HPLC, Gas Chromatography and Electro Chromatography. 8 L
B. Ion-Exchange : Cation and Anion exchangers, Action of ion exchage resins. Ion-exchange equilibria and ion exchange capacity. Strongly and weakly acidic cation exchangers. Strongly and weakly basic anion exchangers. Liquid ion exchangers, chelating ion exchangers, techniques of ion exchange and applications in analytical Chemistry. Separation using solvent mixtures. 8 L
C. Solvent Extraction: Basic principles, Significance of various terms. Classification, Factors favouring solvent extraction, Extraction equilibria. Synergetic effects, ion-pair extraction, salting out effect and stripping. Techniques of extraction by high molecular weight amines i.e. crown ethers, cryptands and calixarenes.
Unit - III
Optical Methods: 12 L
A. Spectrophotometry and Colorimetry. : Interaction of radiations with matter, Fundamental laws of Spectrophotometry. Beer Lamberts law and its limitations. Varification of Beers law and deviation from Beers law. Choice of solvent. Ringboms plot. Photometric titrations. Pk value of indicator. Outline of construction and working of the UV-Visible spectrophotometers. (Single and double beam). Applications of quantitative and qualitative analysis, Problems. Theory, instrumentation and applications of fluorimetry, turbidimetry and Nephelometry.
B. Flame Emission and atomic spectrometry: 12 L
Flame photometry : Elementary theory of flame photometry, instrumentation and experimental techniques. Interferences, analytical techniques and applications. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS): Introduction, Principle, Advantages of AAS over FES, Instrumentation, Flame atomization. Hollow cathod lamps, interferences and applications.
Environmental Chemistry: 14 L
A. Water pollution: Origin of waste water, types, water pollutants and their effects. Sources of water pollution, domestic, industrial, agricultural soil and radioactive wastes as sources of pollution. Objectives of analysis, parameter for analysis colour, turbidity, total solids, conductivity, acidity, alkalinity, hardness, chloride, sulphate, Fluoride, Silica, Phosphates and different forms of nitrogen. Heavy metal pollution, public health significance of Cadmium, Chromium, Copper, Zinc, Lead, Manganese, Mercury and Arsenic. General survey of instrumental technique for the analysis of heavy metals in aqueous systems. Oxygen content of water and aquatic life. Measurements of DO, BOD, COD and their significance as pollution indicators. Pesticides as water pollutants and analysis. 10 L
B. AIR POLLUTION: Green house effect, Sources of air pollution, air quality standards and sampling. Analysis of air pollutants (CO, NOX, SOx and Hydrocarbons and particulates) Acid rain, Effects of air pollution, Photochemical smog and air pollution control.
A) Cell Structure and Functions: 8 L
Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, intracellular organelles and their comparison. Origin of life-unique properties of carbon, chemical evolution and rise of living systems. Introduction of biomolecular, building blocks of bio-macromolecules proteins, enzymes, DNA and RNA). Helix coil transition. 6 L
B) Structure and biological functions of glucosaminoglycans or mucopolysaccharides. Carbohydrates of glycoproteins and glycolipids. Roll of sugars in biological recognition. Blood group substances. Ascorbic acid [Carbohydrate metabolism- Krebs cycle, glycolysis, glycogenesis and glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphates pathway].
C. Amino-acids, Peptides and Proteins 5 L
Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins to peptides, amino acid sequencing. Secondary structure of proteins, forces responsible for holding of secondary structures, a-helix, b-sheets, super secondary structure, triple helix structure of collagen. Tertiary structure of protein-folding and domain structure. Quaternary structure.
Amino acid metabolism degradation and biosynthesis of amino acids, sequence determination. Chemical/enzymatic/mass spectral, recemization/detection.
D. Nucleic Acids. 5 L
Purine and pyrimidine bases of nucleic acids, base pairing via H-bonding. Structure of ribonucleic acids (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic Acids (DNA), double helix model of DNA and forces responsible for holding it. Chemical and enzymatic hydrolysis of nucleic acids. The chemical basis for heredity, an overview of replication of DNA, transcription, translation and genetic code.
1. Text book of Biochemistry, E.S.West; W.R.Todd; H.S.Mason, J.T.V.Bruggen oxford & IBH publishing co. pvt. Ltd.
2. Principles of Biochemistry, A.L.Lehniger, Worth Publishers.
3. Biochemistry, J.David Rawn, Neil Patterson.
4. Biochemistry, L.Stryer, W.H.Freeman
5. Biochemistry, Vote and Voet, John Wiley.
6. Outlines of Biochemistry, E.E.Conn and P.K.Stmpf, John Wiley.
7. Environmental Chemistry, S.E.Manahan, Lewis Publishers.
8. Environmental Chemistry, Sharma & Kaur, Krishna Publishers.
9. Environmental Chemistry, A.K.De, Wiley Eastern.
10. Environmental Pollution Analysis, S.M.Khopkar, Wiley Eastern.
11. Environmental Toxicology, Ed. J.Rose, Gordon and Breach Science Publication.
12. Elemental Analysis of Airborne Particles, Ed. S.Landberger and M.Creatchman, Gordon and breach Science Publication.
13. Atmospheric Pollution, W.Buch, McGraw Hill, New York.
14. Fundamentals of Air Pollution, S.J.Williamson, Addison Wesley Publishers.
15. Analytical Aspect of Environmental Chemistry, D.F.S. Natusch and P.K.Hopke, John Wiley & Sons. New York.
16. Analytical Chemistry Problems and Solution S.M.Khopkar, New Age International Publication.
17. Day & Underwood : Quantitative Analysis (Prentice Hall India Limited)
18. Findley : Practical Physical Chemistry :
19. A.I.Vogel A text book of quantitative inorganic Chemistry, ELBS, London.
20. Strouts Galfillal : Analytical Chemistry (Clarendon Press)
21. Yu.Lyalikov : Physicochemical Analysis (Mir Publishers)
22. Strouts Wilson & Parry Jones : Chemical Analysis Vol.I (Clarendon Press)
23. Meites and Thomas : Advanced Analytical Chemistry, (Mc Graw Hill)
24. Willard Merritt and Dean : Instrumental methods of Analysis (Van Nostrand)
25. B.L.Krayer, H.H.Willard, L.Merrit , J.A.Dean & F.A.Settle : Instrumental Methods of Analysis (CBS Pulishers, Delhi, 1986)
26. L.R.Shyder & C.H.Harvath : An Introduction to Separation Science (Wiley Interscience)
27. R.D.Brown Instrumental Methods of Chemical Analysis (Tata McGraw Hill)
28. F.J.Wicher Robert : Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis
29. Dr.G.L.David Krupadanam, D.Vijaya Prasad, K.Varaprasad Rao, KLN Reddy, C.Sudhakar, Analytical Chemistry.
30. Analytical Chemistry of Macrocyclic and supramolecular and Compounds - S.M. Khopkar-Narosa publication.
31. Separation Chemistry - R.D. Budhiraja - New Age.
32. Perspectives in Environmental studies - Kaushik & Kaushik - New Age."
syllabus for M.Sc.Part-II (chemistry)
Total Lectures : 120 Hours, 4 Hours per week, 24 Hours/unit Total Marks : 75
Unit-I : A) Unifying principles : Electromagnetic radiation, interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter-absorption emission transmission reflection, refraction, dispersion, polarization and scattering. Uncertainty relation and natural line width and line broadening, transition probabilities, results of the dependent perturbation theory, transition moment, selection rule, intensity of spectral lines, Born-Oppenheimer approximation, rotational, vibrational and electronic energy levels.
B) Microwave spectroscopy : Classification of molecules, rigid rotar model, effect of isotopic substitution on the transition frequencies, intensities, non-rigid rotar, Stark effect, nuclear and electron spin interaction and effect of external field, Applications.
C) Ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy : Various electronic transitions (185 - 800 nm), Beer-Lambert law, effect of solvent on electronic transitions, UV bands for carbonyl compounds, unsaturated carbonyl compounds dienes, conjugated polynes. Fieser - woodward rules for conjugated dienes and carbonyl compounds, UV spectra of aromatic and heterocyclic compounds. Steric effects in biphenyls.
Unit-II : A) Infrared Spectroscopy : Review of linear harmonic oscillator, vibrational energies of diatomic molecules, Zero point energy, force constant and bond strengths, unharmonicity, Morse potential energy diagram, vibrations of poly atomic molecules, selection rules, normal modes of vibrations, group frequencies, overtone bands, factors affecting the band positions and intensities, far IR region, metal ligand vibrationas, Instrumentation and sample handling Characteristics. Vibrational frequencies of alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, aromatic compounds,alcohols, ethers, phenols, amines. Detailed study of vibrational frequencies of carbonyl compounds, (Ketones, aldehydes, esters, amides, acids, acid chlorides and anhydrides, lactones, lactums and conjugated carbonyl compounds). Effect of hydrogen bonding and solvent on vibrational frequencies, overtones, combinations bands and Fermi's resonance. FT-IR, IR of gaseous solids and polymeric materials. Modes of bonding of ambidentate ligands etc.
B) Raman Spectroscopy : Classical and quantum theories of Raman effect. Pure rotational, vibrational and vibration-rotational Raman spectra, selection rules, mutual exclusion Raman spectroscopy, coherent antistokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS). Application for the study of active sites of metalloproteins.
C) Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy : Introduction, Basic principle, Zero field splitting and Kramer's degeneracy, factors affecting the "g" values, hyperfine splitting, Determination of "g" value. Instrumentation, working of the instrument, sensitivity, concentration, choice of solvent, presentation of ESR, Applications of ESR to study of free radicals, structure determination, reaction velocities. Applications to inorganic compounds including biological systems and to inorganic free radicals such as PH4-, F2- [BH3]-, determination of oxidation state of a metal, Eldor and Eldor techniques.
Unit-III : A) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy : General introduction and defination of Nuclear spin, nuclear resonance shielding of magnetic nuclei, chemical shift, factors influencing chemical shift, deshielding, chemical shift values and correlation for protons bonded to carbon (aliphatic olefinic, aldehydic and aromatic) and other nuclei. (alcohols, phenols, enols, acids, amines, amides and mercaptols), chemical exchange, effect of deuteration spin-spin coupling (n+1) rule, complex spin-spin interactions between two, three, four and five nuclei (first order spectra) virtual coupling, factors influencing coupling constant J, classification of spin systems like AX, AX2, ABX, AMX, ABC, A2B2 etc. Spin decoupling basic ideas about instrument, mechanics of measurements. Stereochemistry, hindered rotation, Karplus curve-variation of J with dihedral angle. Simplification of complex spectra, nuclear magnetic double resonance, contact shift reagents, solvent effects, Fourier transform technique, Nuclear Over Hauser Effect (NOE). Resonance of other nuclei like P, F. Some applications including biochemical systems, an overview of NMR of metal nucleides with emphasis on 195Pt and 119Sn NMR.
B) Carbon : 13 NMR spectroscopy : General considerations, chemical shift (aliphatic, olefinic, alkyne, aromatic, hetero-aromatic and carbonyl carbon), Coupling constants. General ideas about two dimensional NMR spectroscopy - COSY, NOESY, DEPT techniques, solid state NMR.
Unit-IV : A) Emission Spectroscopy based upon plasma : Arc and spark atomization, spectra from higher energy sources, emission spectroscopy based on plasma sources, atomic fluorescence methods based on plasma atomization. Emission spectroscopy based upon arc and spark sources. X-ray fluroscence and its principle, instrumentation and applications in analytical chemistry.
B) Photo Electron Spectroscopy : Basic principle, photoelectric effect, ionization process, PES spectra of simple molecules, ESCA, Chemical information from ESCA. Auger Electron Spectroscopy - basic idea. Surface characterisation by spectroscopy and microscopy, (SEM).
C) X-ray diffraction : Interaction of X-ray with matter, scattering & diffraction. Bragg's method, Debye-Sherrer Method of X-ray structural analysis of crystals, index reflections, identification of unit cell from systematic absence in diffraction pattern. Structure of simple lattices & X-ray intensities structure factor, its relation to intensity of electron density procedure for x-ray structure analysis.
D) Electron Diffraction : Scattering intensity Vs scattering angle, wierl equation, measurement technique, elucidation of structure of simple gas phase molecules. Low energy electron diffraction and structure of surfaces.
Neutron Diffraction : Scattering of neutrons by solids and liquids, magnetic scattering, measurement techniques. Elucidation of structure of magnetically ordered unit cells.
Unit-V : A) Mass Spectrometry : Introduction, theory, measurement techniques (EI, CI, FD, FAB) recording of mass spectrum. Types of ions, isotopic contribution, fragmentation process, factors affecting fragmentation, ion analysis, ion abundance. Mass spectral fragmentation of organic compounds of various types, common functional groups, molecular ions, metastable ions, McLafferty rearrangement. Retro-Diel's Alder fragmentation, Nitrogen rule. High resolution mass spectrometry. Examples of mass spectural fragmentation of organic compounds with respect to their structure determination.
B) Mossbauer Spectroscopy : Basic principle, spectral parameters & spectrum display. Doppler shift, Recoilless emission of radiation. Isomer shifts, Quadrupole Splitting, Magnetic hyperfine splitting. Application of the technique to the studies of (1) Bonding & structure of Fe+2, & Fe+3. compounds including those of intermediate spin, (2) Sn+2 & Sn+4 compounds - Nature of M-L Bond, coordination number, structure & (3) detection of oxidation state & in equivalent MB atoms. Mossbauer spectroscopy of biological systems.
C) Structural Problem : Problems based on IR, Mass, UV, PMR, 13C NMR data and structure, determination of organic molecules.
Total Lectures : 120 Hours, 4 Hours per week, 24 Hours/unit Total Marks : 75
Unit-I : Radiochemical Methods : Elementary working, principles of Geiger Muller, Ionisation, proportional and g-ray counters. Neutron radiation sources, Radio tracer techniques, Neutron activation analysis (NAA) : Principle, techniques and applications in preparation of some commonly used radioactive isotopes. Use of radioactive isotopes in analytical and physicochemical problems, Isotopic Dilution Analysis (IDA), substoichiometric IDA, experimental technique and application of IDA, advantages and limitations of IDA and comparison of IDA with NAA. Principle of Radiometric titrations, types, Experimental techniques and its applications.
Unit-II : Thermal methods of Analysis : Introduction of different thermal methods, Thermogravimetry TG and DTG, static thermogravimetry, quasistatic thermogravimetry and dynamic thermogravimetry, Instrumentation and balances, X-Y recorder, thermogram. Factors affecting thermograms, Application of thermogravimetry, Differential thermal analysis,, DTA theories, DTA curves, Factors affecting DTA curves, Instrumentation, applications of DTA, reaction kinetics, correlation of DTA and TGA data, simultaneous determination in thermal analysis. Derivative DTA, simple numerical problems.
Differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) : Introduction, Instrumentation, DSC - curves, factors affecting DSC curves and applications. Thermometric Titrations; Introduction, apparatus, theory and applications.
Unit-III : Electroanalytical Techniques :
A) Polarography : Basics of Polarography, reference and working electrodes, operational amplifiers concept, components of the limiting current, adsorption, kinetic, catalytic and diffusion currents and to distinguish them. Ilkovic equation - diffusion current constant and capillary characteristics determination. Role of temperature on diffusion current. Reversible, quasi reversible and irreversible electrode reactions and evaluation of parameters using various reactions. Limitations of Polarography advancements - pulse and differential pulse polarography.
B) Voltammetry : Linear and Cyclic sweep voltammetry. Randle's Sevcik equation. Adsorption complications in voltammetry. Tests for electrode reactions coupled with chemical reaction, EC and ECE reactions. Applications of voltammetry in the study of unstable reaction intermediates and in enzyme catalysed reactions.
Stripping Technique : Anodic and Cathodic stripping voltammetry and their applications in the trace determination of metal ions and biologically important compounds.
C) Ion Selective Electrodes : Electrical Properties of membrane, glass electrode with special reference to H+, Na+, K+ ions, operation of solid membrane electrode, operation of liquid membrane electrode, coated type ion electrode. Applications of ion selective electrode in determination of some toxic metals and some anions. ( F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, and NO3- )
Unit-IV : Optical and Automation methods of Analysis :
A) Molecular Luminescence Spectroscopy : Introduction, Molecular fluorescence, phosphorescence and Chemiluminescence, theory, factors affecting fluorescence and phosphorescence, Intrumentation and analytical applications. Photoacoustic spectroscopy : Theory, Instrumentation, PAS- gases and condensed systems, chemical and surface applications.
B) Inductively Coupled plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) : Principles, automization and excitation, ICP-source, Instrumentation and applications.
C) Automation in Analysis : Classification of automated methods, principles and techniques of auto-analyzers employed for micro analysis with emphasis on the basis sequences in operational modes in segmented and non-segmented flow and applications. Flow Injection Analysis (FIA), Factors affecting FIA and applications.
Unit-V : Analysis of Food, Fuel, Body fluids and Drugs :
A) The chemical and nutritional composition of food, analysis of trace elements such as Pb, As, Cd in food, Analysis of Tea, Milk, Spices. Chemical preservation of food, Analysis of sodium benzoate and sodium metabisulphite, Analysis of adulterants in food, Analysis of artificial sweeteners in food and colouring agents.
B) Fuel Analysis : Solid, liquid, Gas - Ultimate and proximate analysis - heating values - grading of coal, liquid Fuels - flash point, aniline point, octane number and carbon residue. Gaseous fuels - producer gas and water gas - calorific value.
C) Clinical Chemistry and Drug Analysis : Composition of blood, collection and preservation of samples, clinical analysis, serum electrolytes, blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, albumin, globulin, barbiturates, acid and alkaline phosphatases. Immunoassay : Principles of radio immunoassay (RIA) and applications. The blood gas analysis trace elements in the body. Narcotics and dangerous drugs, classification of drugs. Screening by gas and thin layer chromatography and spectrophotometric measurements.
List of Books
1. Day and Underwood : Quantitative Analysis
2. A.I.Vogal : A text book of quantitative Analysis
3. Flaschka : EDTA Titration
4. Meites and Thomas : Advanced Analytical Chemistry
5. G.W.Ewing : Instrumental methods of
6. R.S.Drago : Physical methods in Inorganic Chemistry
7. G.D.Christian : Analytical Chemistry
8. S.M.Khopkar : Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry
9. Kolltath and Lingane : Polarography
10. Braun : Instrumental methods of Chemical Analysis
11. Willard, Merritt & Dean : Instrumental methods of Analysis
12. Strouts,Crifillan and : Analytical Chemistry
13. J.W.T.Spinks and : Introductions to Radiation
14. S.A.Skoog and D.W. : Fundamentals of Analytical
15. R.V.Dilts : Analytical Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry (special paper-I)
Total Lectures : 120 Hours, 4 Hours per week, 24 Hours/unit Total Marks : 75
Unit-I : A) Essential & trace metals in biological systems : Biological functions of inorganic elements, biological ligands for metal ions. Coordination by proteins, Tetrapyrrole ligands & other macrocycles. Influence of excess & deficiency of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu & Zn. Genetic defects in the absorption of trace elements. Regulation & storage of trace elements. Toxic effects of metals.
B) Medicinal use of metal complexes as antibacterial, anticancer, use of cis-platin as antitumor drug, antibiotics & related compounds. Metal used for diagnosis & chemotherapy with particular reference to anti cancer drugs. Chelate therapy, chemotherapy with compounds of some non-essential elements; Platinum complexes in cancer therapy. Gold containing drugs used in the therapy of Rheumatic Arthritis, Lithium in Psycho Pharmocological drugs.
C) Metal Storage, transport & biomineralization with respect to Ferritin, Transferrin & Siderophores, Na+, / K+ pump. Role of Ca in transport & regulation in living cells.
Unit-II : A) Bio-energetics and ATP cycle : DNA polymerisation, metal complexes in transmission of energy, chlorophylls, Photosystem I & Photosystem II in cleavage of H2O, Model systems. Biological Nitrogen fixation.
B) Electron transfer in Biology : Structure and functions of metalloproteins in electron transfer proteins, cytochromes & Fe-S proteins, Non-heme iron proteins; Rubredoxins, Synthetic models.
Transport & Storage of Dioxygen : Heme proteins & Oxygen uptake, structure and functions of haemoglobin, myoglobin, hemocyanins & hemerythrin.
C) Metallo enzymes : Apoenzyme, Haloenzyme & Coenzyme. The principle involved and role of various metals in -
i) Zn-enzyme :- Carboxy peptidase & Carbonic anhydrase.
ii) Fe-enzyme :- Catalase Peroxidase &
iii) Cu-enzyme :- Super Oxide dismutase
iv) Molybdenum :- Oxatransferase enzymes,
Xanthine oxidase, Co-enzyme
Vit. B-12, Co-C bond cleavage,
Mutase activity of co-enzyme
B12. Alkylation reactions of
Unit-III : Photoinorganic Chemistry :
A) Basics of Photochemistry : Absorption, excitation, photochemical laws, quantum yield, electronically excited states - life times - measurements of the times. Flash photolysis, stopped flow techniques. Energy dissipation by radiative and no-radiative processes, absorption spectra, Frank-Condon principle; photochemical stages - primary and secondary processes.
B) Properties of excited states : Photochemical kinetics. Calculation of rates of radiative processes.
C) Excited states of Metal complexes : Electronically excited states of metal complexes, charge-transfer spectra, charge transfer excitations, methods for obtaining charge-transfer spectra.
Unit-IV : A) Ligand field Photochemistry : Photosubstitution, photooxidation and photoreduction.
B) Redox reactions by Excited Metal Complexes : Energy transfer under conditions of weak interaction and strong interaction - exciplex formation, conditions of excited states to be useful as redox reactants, excited electron transfer, metal complexes as attractive candidates (2,2 - bipyridine and 1,10 - Phenanthroline complexes.).
C) Metal Complex Sensitizers : Metal complex sensitizer, water photolysis, nitrogen fixation and carbon dioxide reduction.
Unit-V : Organotransition Metal Chemistry :
A) Transition Metal - Carbon multiple bonds. Nature of bonding, structural characteristics & synthesis, Properties of transition metal Pi - Complexes with unsaturated organic molecules, alkenes, alkynes, allyl, diene, dienyl, arene & trienyl complexes, Alkylidenes, alkylidynes, low valent carbenes & carbynes. Applications of transition metal, organometallic intermediates in organic synthesis relating to nucleophilic and electrophilic attack on ligands, Role of metals in organic synthesis.
Organocopper in Organic synthesis. : Types, routes of synthesis, stability & decomposition path ways of alkyls & aryls of transition metals. Environmental aspects of organometallic compounds.
B) Catalysis : Introduction, types and applications of catalysis in the food, fine chemical, petroleum & petroleum & petrochemical.
C) Inorganic Polymers : Classification, Synthesis, Properties & structural aspects, characterisation based on various physico-chemical methods & applications of the following polymers :
(i) Coordination Polymers, and (ii) Polysilanes.
Inorganic Chemistry (special paper-II)
Total Lectures : 120 Hours, 4 Hours/week, 24 Hours/unit Total Marks : 75
Unit-I : Solid State Chemistry :
A) Principles of Crystal Structure : Packing of equal sized spheres in HCP, CCP, BCC in closed packed arrangement, ionic radius, radius ratio. Pauling Rule deviation from Pauling rule and reasons. Limiting radius for tetrahedral, octahedral and cubic co-ordination geometry.
B) Crystal Structure of Some Simple compounds :
i) Covalent structure type - Diamond, Sphalerite and Wurtzite.
ii) Binary compounds of AB type :Nacl, Cscl and NiAs reasons for preference for a particular structure in above AB type of compounds. AB2 type : Fluorite, antifluorites, Rutile structures. Li2O, Na2O, etc. CdCl2, CdI2 structures, difference between them.
AB2 type : ReO3, BiI3, CrCl3
A2B3 type : Fe2O3 corundum Al2O3, Mn2O3.
iii) Ternary Compounds ABX3 type : Perovskite, packing of Oxygen with titanium in CaTiO3 Tolerance factor and structural variations. Unit Cell with oxygen at corner and with titanium at corner to show coordination of calcium and titanium, structure of ilmenite FeTiO3.
Structure of Olivine ((FeMg)2 SiO4)
Application of charge neutrality principles, Deviation structures.
iv) AB2X4 type - Spinel, packing of oxygen in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, sites occupancy number of site surrounding each oxygen, application of charge neutrality principle, Normal and inverse, 2-3 and 4-2 spinel, site preferences in spinel, distorted spinel. Hausmannite (Jahn-Teller distortions), Factors causing distortion in spinel.
Unit-II : A) Defects in stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric solids, electrons and holes, atomic inperfections : Interestitial, Schottky defect, Frenkel defect, line defect and other entities, thermodynamics of Schottky & Frankel defects. Dissociation, theory of dislocation, Plane defects - Lineage boundary, grain boundary, stacking fault, 3D defects, Defects and their concentrations, Ionic conductivity in solids, Non-stoichiometric compounds. Electronic properties of Non-stoichiometric oxides, solid electrolytes, pyknrometric and electrical conductivity methods of study of defects, radiation effects on solid nature and properties, photography, colour centres, order-disorder changes, defects, imperfection equilibrium, atom movements, and defect interactions.
B) Electronic Properties and Band Theory : Metals, Insulators and semiconductors, electronic structure of solids - band theory, band structure of metals, insultors and semiconductors. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, doping semiconductors, p-n junctions. Hall effect, organic semiconductors and its applications, mechanism of ionic conduction, diffusion superionic conductors, phase-transitions and mechanism of conduction in super-ionic conductors, applications of ionic conductors.
Unit-III : A) Optical and Magnetic properties of solids : Introduction, interaction of light with atoms, absorption and emission of radiations in semiconductor, optical fibres, optical reflectance, photoconduction - photo electric effects, luminescence, photovoltaic effect, phosphorescence, lasers, Principle of laser action and its application.
Dielectric behaviour materials : Piezo-electricity, pyroelectricity, ferrielectricity, antiferroelectricity, ferroelectricity and their applications.
B) Magnetic Properties : Introduction, Classification of materials, magnetic susceptibility, paramagnetism in metal complexes, diamagnetism, ferromagnetic metals, ferromagnetic compounds (CrO2), Antiferromagnetism - transition metal monoxides, ferrimagnetism - ferrites, magnetic anisotropy, magneto striction, cooperative phenomena - magnetic domains, hysteresis (hard and soft magnets) magnetic storage and applications of magnetic materials.
C) Superconductivity : Introduction, discovery magnetic properties of super conductor, theory of super conductivity, Josephson effects, HC-temperature superconductor, crystal structure of high temperature semiconductors, and its uses.
Unit-IV : A) Glasses, Ceramics & Composites :
Glass : A general idea of Glassy state, types, their composition and properties, glass formers and glass modifiers, optical glass, coloured glasses, lead glass, neutron absorbing glass.
Ceramics : General Introduction, types, manufacturing process, structure, mechanical properties.
B) Liquid Crystals : Mesomorphic behaviour, thermotropic liquid crystals, positional order, bond orientational order, nematics and smectic mesophases; smectic - Nematic transition and clearing temperature - homeotropic, planar and schlieren textures, twisted nematics, chiral nematics, molecular arrangement in smectic A & smectic C phases, optical properties of liquid crystals. Dielectric susceptibility and dielectric constants. Lyotropic phases and their description of ordering in liquid crystals.
C) Bio-materials : Biomineralisation, controlled formation of biological composits, bone & other mineralised tissues, materials of construction, applications (General aspect only).
Unit-V : A) Nanoparticals & Nanostructural materials : Introduction, methods of preparation, physical properties, chemical properties .
Nanoporous Materials : Introduction, Zeolites and molecular sieves, porous lamellar solids, composition - structure, preparation and applications.
B) Chemical Vapour Deposition : Introduction, fundamental aspects of CVD processes, vapor phase deposition methods.
Molecular Precursor routes to inorganic solids :- Introduction, sol-gel chemistry of metal alkoxides, Hybrid organic - inorganic compounds.
C) Solid State Reactions : General principles, reaction rates, reaction mechanism, reactions of solids, factors influencing reactivity, photographic process.
List of Books (M.Sc.-II Inorganic - Special Paper-I & II) :
1) Cotton and Wilkinson : Advanced Inorganic Chemistry (Vth Edn)
2) R.C. Mehrotra and A. Singh : Organometallic Chemistry an introduction.
3) Principles of the solid state : H.V. Keer, Wiley Eastern.
4) Introduction to solids : L.V. Azaroff
5) Solid State Chemistry : C.N.R. Rao
6) A text book of inorganic chemistry : A.K.De
7) Material science and engineering, An Introduction : W.D.Callister, Wiley.
8) Materials Science : J.C.Anderson, K.D.Leaver, I.M.Alexander and R.D.Rawlings, ELBS
9) Thermotropic liquid crystals, Ed., G.W.Gray, John Wiley.
10) Solid State Chemistry : A.R.West.
11. Cotton and Wilkinson : Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
12. M.N.Hughes : Inorganic Chemistry of Biological process
13. Parcell and Kotz : Inorganic Chemistry
14. R.C.Mehrotra and : Organometallic Chemistry an
A Singh introduction.
15. G.L.Eicchom : Inorganic Bio-Chemistry
Vol I & II
16. H.Siegel : Metals in biological Chemistry
17. Daasy : Bio-Inorganic Chemistry
18. Paty : Industrial toxicology and
Hygiene Vol I & II
19. C.N.R.Rao : Spectroscopy in Inorganic Chemistry
20. J.E.Huheey : Inorganic Chemistry
21. J.J.Lagowski : Modern Inorganic Chemistry
22. Basolo and Pearson : Inorganic Reaction Mechanism
23. Darlin : Magnetic properties of transition
24. N.B.Hanny : Solid state Chemistry
25. L.V.Azaroff : Introduction to solids
26. A.K.Barnard : Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry
27. Day & Selbin : Theoretical Inorganic Chemistry
28. Benson : Inorganic Reaction mechanism
29. Henderson, Edward : Defects in crystaline solids
30. N.N.Greenward : Ionic crystal lattue defects and
31. A.K.Galway : Chemistry of solids
32. C.N.R.Rao : Solids state chemistry
33. A.K.De : A Text book of inorganic
34. S.G.Skyes : Inorganic reaction Mechanism
35. G.E.Coates : Principles of organumetallic
36. H.J.Emeleus and : Modern aspects in Inorganic
37. Malik, Tuli and : Selected topies in Inorganic
Madan Modern Chemistry
38. West and : Advances in Organometallic
F.G.A.Stone Chemistry Vol V.
39. F.G.A.Stone and : Inorganic Polymers
40. C.J.Ballahansan : Molecular electronic structures of transitionmetal complexes.
41. H.R.Allcock : Phosphorus Nitrogen compounds.
42. J.O.Edward : Inorganic reaction mechanism
43. Hanna : Solid state Chemistry
44. Benson D. : Mechanisms of Inorganic
Reactions in solutions
45. Yatsmirski K.B. and : Instability constant of complex
46. G.Wilkinson : Comprehensive
R.D.Gillard, and Coordination
J.A.Mcclevarty Chemistry, Pergamon
47. K.Burger : Experimental Methods in Coordination Chemistry, Bulderworth.
48. I.S.Butter and J.F. : Inorganic Chemistry
Harrod Benjamin publication
49. T.S.Swain and D.S.T. : Organometallic
50. John Wulff and others : Structure and Properties of Materials Vol. I-IV Wiley Eastern
Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi
51. V.Raghavan : Materials Science and Engineering
52. A.G.Guy : Essentials of Materials Science.
53. Lovell, Avery Kvarson : Physical Properties of Materials.
54. Kelley and Groves : Crystallography and Crystal Defects.
55. Kirkendale : Analytical Methods of Materials
56. C.M.Mitchell : Standard Methods of Chemical Analysis
57. B.D.Cullity : Elements of X-ray Diffraction.
58. H.V.Keer : Principles of Solid State Wiley Publication
59. West and F.G.A. Stone : Advances in Organomettalic Chemistry
60. A.W.Admason and : Concept of Inorganic
61. V.Balzani and : Concept of Inorganic
V.Carassiti Coordination Compound
62. K.K.Rohatigi Mukherjee : Fundamentals of Photo Chemistry
63. G.L.Eichhorn : Inorganic Biochemistry, Vol. I,II
Paper-III (special paper-I)
Total Lectures :
120 Hours, 4 Hours/week, 24 Hours/unit Total Marks : 75
Unit-I : A) Photochemistry : Interaction of radiation with matter, types of excitation, fate of excited molecule, quenching, quantum efficiency, quantum yield, transfer of excitation energy, actinometry, Singlet and triplet states, experimental methods in photochemistry.
Photochemistry of carbonyl compounds and transition, Norrish type I and Norrish type II reactions. Paterno-Buchi reaction, photoreduction, Photochemistry of Enones, Hydrogen abstraction rearrangement of unsaturated ketones and cyclohexadienones. Photochemistry of parabenzoquinones. Phochemistry of Aromatic Compounds with reference to isomerisation, additions and substitutions. Photochemical isomerization of cis and trans alkenes, Photochemical cyclisation of reactions, Barton reaction, Photo-Fries rearrangement, Phototheory reactions of anilides.
B) Pericyclic Reactions : Molecular Orbital symmetry, Frontier orbitals of ethylene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,3,5,-hexatriene allyl systems, classification of pericyclic reactions, FMO approach, Woodward-Hoffmann correlation diagram method and Perturbation of molecular orbital (PMO) approach of pericyclic reactions under thermal and photochemical conditions.
Electrocyclic reaction, con-rotatory and dis-rotatory motions 4n and (4n+2) systems with more emphasis on (2+2) and (4+2) cyclo additions of ketones, secondary effects in (4+2) cycloaddition, Sterochemical effects and effect of substituents on the rate of cycloaddition, 1,3,-Dipolar cycloaddition and chelotropic reactions. Sigmatropic rearrangement, suprafacial and antarafacial shifts involving carbon moieties, retention and inversion of configuration, (3,3) and (3,5) Sigmatropic rearrangement, Claisen and Cope rearrangements.
Unit-II : A) Oxidation-Reduction and Electron Transfer Reactions :
i) Oxidation : Principle, aromatization, dehydrogenation yielding C=C, Oxidation aldehydes, ketone, cleavage of C--C bonds in glycols, ozonolysis, epoxidation, Oppenauer oxidation, Sommelet reaction.
ii) Reduction : Selectivity in reduction, reduction of nitro and nitroso compounds, metal hydride reductions, dissolving metal reduction, reduction of aldehydes and ketones to alcohols, reduction of carbonyl group to methylene.
iii) Electron transfer reactions : Selective oxidation of alkyl side chain in aromatic compound, alcohols and acid using Co(III), Reduction with LiAlH4, NaBH4.
B) Formation of C--C bond : Principles, disconnection and synthons, electrophillic and nucleophillic carbon species, use of following reactions in the C-C bond formation, base catalysed condensations, Aldol, Claisen, Perkin, Stobbe's, Knoevengel use of malonic and aceto acetic esters, Michael addition, Wittig reaction, use of acetylides, acid catalysed condensation of olefins, F.C. reaction, Fries reaction and Diels-Alder reaction.
C) Formation of C--N Bond : Reaction involving nucleophilic nitrogen and electrophilic carbon and vice versa, Beckmann rearrangement, Skraup synthesis, Bischler - Napieraski reaction.
Unit-III : A) Umpolung Concept : Dipole inversion, generation of acyl anion, use of 1,3-dithiane, methyl-thiomethylsulphoxide bis phenylthio methane, metalleted enol, ethers, alkylidene diathane, ketone thio acetals, 2-propenethio bismethyl thio-allyl anion.
B) Phosphorous and Sulphur Ylide : Preparation and their synthetic application alongwith stereochemistry.
C) Enamines : Chemistry of Enamines and their synthetic applications.
D) Chemo and Regio Selectivity : Selectivity in organic synthesis. Chemo and Regio selectivity, Stereo selective and Stereospecific reactions, Kinetic and Thermodynamic control in a reaction.
Unit-IV : A) Applications of Organometallics in Organic Synthesis : Use of organometallic compounds of Mg, Li, Zn, B., Sn, and organo copper compounds in organic synthesis. Organo-transition metal reagents of Cr, Fe, Co, Rh, Ni and Pd.
B) Designing the synthesis based on Retro Synthetic Analysis : A disconnection approach to the synthesis of organic compounds. Different considerations in designing Target molecule, concept of synthon, FGI, chemoselectivity, regioselectivity, specificity, stereoselectivity, general strategy choosing a disconnection, Types of disconnections. Some of the applications of these concepts in designing the synthesis of common important class of the compounds.
Unit-V : A) Protection and De-Protection of Functional Groups : Protection and deprotection of functional groups like Hydroxyl, Amino, Carbonyl and Carboxylic groups, techniques employed for these.
B) Phase Transfer Catalysis and Crown Ethers : Their methods of preparation and applications in organic synthesis.
C) Selective Organic Name Reactions : Stork-Enamine reaction, Michael addition, Favorski reaction, Mannich reaction, Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation, Ene reaction, Baeyer-Villiger reaction.
D) Reagents in Organic Synthesis : Use of the following reagents in synthesis and functional group transformations such as complex metal hydrides, Gillemen reagent, Lithium dialkyl cuprate, LDA, DCC, Trimethyl Silyl Iodide, Tributyl Tin hydride, Woodward and Prevost Hydroxylation, DDQ, Peterson synthesis, Wilkinson's Catalyst, Becker Yeast.
Paper-IV (special paper-II)
Total Lectures : 120 Hours, 4 Hours/week, 24 Hours/unit Total Marks : 75
Unit-I : Classification, Isolation, General Methods of Structure determination of the following.
A) Alkaloids : Papaverine, Morphine, Reserpine, Nicotine.
B) Terpenoids : Camphor, Gereniol, Abietic acid, Squalene.
C) Steroids and Harmones : Cholesterol, Testosterone, Progesterone, Cortisone.
Unit-II : Biomolecules :
A) Carbohydrates : Types of naturally occuring sugars, deoxy sugars, amino sugars, branched chain sugars, methyl ethers and acid derivatives of sugars. General methods of structure and ring size determination with reference to maltose, lactose, sucrose, starch and cellulose.
B) Aminoacids, Peptides and Proteins : Amino acids structural characteristics, acid base property, Stereochemistry of amino acids, optical resolution, Strecker synthesis. Peptides and proteins-Structure of peptides and proteins. Primary, secondary and tertiary and quaternary structures. Reactions of peptides, structure, determination of poly peptides and group analysis. Purines and Nucleic acids : Chemistry, structure and functional relation to gene of DNA and RNA.
C) Prostaglandins : Occurance, nomenclature, classification and physiological effects. Synthesis of PGE2 and PGF2a.
Unit-III : Medicinal Chemistry : Mode of action and chemistry of the following.
A) Antibiotics : Introduction, Penicillins V & G, Streptomycin Chloramphenicol, Tetracyclines.
B) Antimalarials : Chemotherapy of malaria, Aminoquinolines, pamaquine, Chloro quinine, pyrimidines and sulphones.
C) Antipyratic and Analgesic : Aspirin, Salol, phenacetin, antipyrin.
D) Vitamins : Structure determination and chemistry of Thiamine (Vitamin D), Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), Vitamin E and Vitamin A.
Unit-IV : A) Dyes : General Introduction, classification on the basis of structure and methods of application, dying mechanism, methods of dyeing, such as direct dyeing, vat dyeing, dispersive dyeing, formation of dye on fibre, dying with reactive dyes. Study of Quinoline yellow (Cyanin dye), Ethyl red (Isocynin dye), Methylene blue (Thiazine dye), Alizarin, Cyanin green (Anthraquinone
dye), Fluorescein, Eosin, Erythrosin, Rhodamines (Xanthene dye), Indigo (Indigoids).
B) Natural Pigments : Chemistry of b-carotenes, orthocynains, General study of porphyrines. Structure and synthesis of Haemoglobin and Chlorophyl.
C) Synthetic Polymers : Introduction, type of polymerization, Mechanism of condensation polymerization, Addition polymerization, free radical cationic, anionic and coordination polymerization. Copolymerization, chain transfer agents, inhibitors. Stereochemistry of polymers, Stereoregulated polymers, atactic, isotatic and syndiotactic polymers.
D) Study of Synthetic Rubber - Buna S., SBR, cold rubber, Buna N, NBR, Butyl Rubber, Poly isoprene rubber, Polyurethanes, vulcanization mechanism. Foaming agents, plasticizers, stabilizers, silicones.
Unit-V : A) Polynuclear Hydrocarbons : Introduction, comparative study of the aromatic character of linear and non-linear ortho fused polynuclear hydrocarbons. General methods of preparation of indene, fluorine, anthracene and phenanthrene. Modern methods of synthesis of macro ring compounds - Clivetone, Muscone and Catenoides.
B) Heterocyclic Compounds : Nomenclature and familiarity with the hererocyclic ring systemes (3-7 members) containing upto 3 hetero atoms. Detailed chemistry of pyrazole, imidazole, oxazole, thiazole, thiazines, pyrimidines, pyrazines and azepines.
C) Biosynthesis of Natural Products : Concept regarding primary and secondary metabolites, biosynthesis of fatty acids, terpenes, alkaloids and amino acids (lysine phenylalanine).
Physical Chemistry (Special Paper-I)
Total lectures 120 hours, 4 hours per week, 24 lectures per unit. 75 Marks.
Unit I : Solid state Chemistry:
A. Solid state reactions: 4L
General principles, experimental procedures, co-precipitation as a precursor to solid state reactions, kinetics of Solid state reactions.
B. Crystal Defects & Non-Stoichiometry: 6L
Perfect and imperfect crystals, intrinsic and extrinsic defects- point defects, line and plane defects, vacancies- Schotcky defects and Frenkel defects. Thermodynamics of Schotcky and Frenkel defect formation, color centers, non- stoichiometry and defects.
C. Electronic Properties and Band Theory: 14L
Metals, insulators and semiconductors, electronic structure of solids- band theory, band structure of metals, insulators and semiconductors. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, doping semiconductors, p-n junctions, super conductors.
Optical properties- Optical reflectance, photoconduction-photoelectric effects.
Magnetic properties- Classification of materials: Quantum theory of paramagnetics- cooperative phenomena- magnetic domains.
Unit II. : A). Multiphase Materials: 5L
Ferrous; Fe-C phase transformations in ferrous alloys; stainless steels, non-ferrous alloys, properties of ferrous and nonferrous alloys and their applications.
B) Glasses, Ceramics, Composites and Nanomaterials: 11L
Glassy state, glass formers and glass modifiers, applications. Ceramics structures, mechanical properties, clay products. Refractories, characterizations, properties and applications. Microscopic composite; dispersion-strengthened and particle-reinforced, fiber-reinforced composites, macroscopic composites. Preparation procedures, special properties, applications.
C) Polymeric Materials: 8L
Molecular shape, structure and configurations, crystallinity, stress-strain behavior, thermal behavior, polymer types and their applications, conducting and Ferro-electric polymers.
Unit III : A) High Tc Materials: 9L
Defect perovskites, high Tc superconductivity in cuprates, preparation and characterization of 1-2-3 and 2-1-4 materials, normal state properties; anisotropy; temperature dependence of electrical resistance; superconducting state; applications of high Tc materials.
B) Thin Films 6L
Preparation techniques; evaporation/ sputtering, chemical processes, MOCVD, sol-gel etc. growth techniques, properties and applications of thin films.
C) Ionic Conductors: 9L
Mechanism of ionic conduction, interstitial jumps (Frenkel); vacancy mechanism, diffusion superionic conductors; phase transitions and mechanism of conduction in superionic conductors, examples and applications of ionic conductors.
Unit IV : A) Materials for Solid State Devices: 6L
Rectifiers, transistors IV-V compounds, optical properties.
B) Organic Solids, Fullerenes,: 9L
Electrically conducting solids, organic charge transfer complex, organic metals, organic superconductors, magnetism in organic materials.
Fullerenes-doped, Fullerenes as superconductors.
C) Molecular Devices: 9L
Optical storage memory and switches-sensors.
Nonlinear optical materials; nonlinear optical effects, second and third order-molecular hyperpolarisability and second order electric susceptibility-materials for second and third harmonic generation.
Unit V : A) Liquid Crystals: 9L
Mesomorphic behavior, thermotropic liquid crystals, positional order, bond orientational order, nematic and sematic mesophases; sematic-nematic transition and clearing temperature-homeotropic, planar and schlieren textures, twisted nematics chiral nematics, molecular arrangement in sematic A and sematic C phases, optical properties of liquid crystals. Dielectric susceptibility and dielectric constants. Lyotropic phases and their description of ordering in liquid crystals.
B) General properties of Liquids: 9L
Liquids as dense gases, liquids as disordered solids, some thermodynamic relations, internal pressure and its significance in liquids. Different types of intermolecular forces in liquids.
C) Theory of Liquids: 6L
Theory of liquids, partition function method or model approach; single cell models, communal energy and entropy.
1. Material Science and Engineering, An Introduction, W.D.Callister, Wiley.
2. Principles of the solid state, H.V.Keer, Wiley Eastern.
3. Materials Science, J.C.Anderson, K.D.Leaver, J.M.Alexander and R.D.Rawlings, ELBS.
4. Therotropic Liquid Crystals, Ed. G.W.Gray, Wiley.
5. Handbook of liquid crystals, Kelkar and Hatz, Chemie Verlag.
6. An Introduction to liquid state, P.A.Egelstaff, Academic Press.
7. The Dynamic Liquid State, A.F.M.Barton, Longman.
8. The Liquid State, J.A.Pryde.
9. Significant Liquid structures, H.Eyring and M.S.John.
10. Solid State Chemistry, D.K.Chakrabarty, New Age International,1996.
11. Electronic Structure and Chemistry of solids, P.A.Cox, Oxford University Press, 1991.
12. Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, A.W.Adamson, John Wiley & Sons, 1990.
13. Solid State Chemistry and its applications, A.R.West, John Wiley & Sons, 1989.
14. Industrial Chemistry, B.K.Sharma, GOEL Publishing House, Meerut.
Physical Chemistry (Special Paper-II)
Total lectures : 120 hours, 4 hours per week, 24 lectures per unit. 75 Marks.
Unit I : Polymers
(a) Basic concepts: 8L
Monomers, repeat units, degree of polymerization. Linear, branched and network polymers. Classification of polymers. Polymerization: condensation, addition, radical chain-ionic and co-ordination and copolymerization. Polymerization conditions and polymer reactions. Polymerization in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems.
(b) Polymer Characterization: 8L
Polydispersion-average molecular weight concept. Number, weight and viscosity average molecular weights. Polydispersity and molecular weight distribution. The practical significance of molecular weight. Measurement of molecular weights. End-group, viscosity, light scattering, osmotic and ultracentrifugation methods. Analysis and testing of polymers, chemical analysis of polymers, spectroscopic methods, X-ray diffraction study. Microscopy. Thermal analysis and physical testing-tensile strength. Fatigue, impact. Tear resistance. Hardness and abrasion resistance.
(c) Polymer Processing: 8L
Plastics, elastomers and fibers. Compounding. Processing techniques: Calendering, die casting, rotational casting, film casting, injection molding, blow molding, extrusion molding, thermoforming, foaming, reinforcing and fiber spinning.
Unit II : (a) Structure of polymers: 8L
Morphology and order in crystalline polymers configurations of polymer chains. Crystal structures of polymers. Morphology of crystalline polymers, strain induced morphology, crystallization and melting.
(b) Properties and Structure : 8L
Polymer structure and physical properties, crystalline melting point Tm- melting points of homogenious series, effect of chain flexibility and other steric factors, entropy and heat of fusion. The glass transition temperature, Tg-Relationship between Tm and Tg, effect of molecular weight, diluents, chemical structure, chain topology, branching and crossing linking. Property requirements and polymer utilization.
(c) Properties of Commercial Polymers: 8L
Polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyamides, polyesters, phenolic resins, epoxy resins and silicone polymers. Functional polymers- electrically conducting polymers.
Unit III : Nuclear Chemistry & Radiation Chemistry:
(a) Properties of nucleons and nuclear models: 6L
Mechanical effects due to orbiting and spinning of nucleons. Magnetic properties of nucleons, nuclear magnetic resonance , Mossbauer effect, electric quadrupole moment of nuclides. Fermi gas model, collective model and optical model.
(b) Nuclear reactions and reactors: 6L
Types of nuclear reactions, reaction cross section, specific nuclear reactions, photo-nuclear reactions and thermal nuclear reactions. Fusion reactors, critical size of thermal reactor, Breeder reactor. Nuclear waste management.
(c) Applications of radioactivity: 4L
Szillard-Chalmers reaction, cow milking systems as tracers and as source of electricity.
(d) Radiation Chemistry: 8L
Radio-isotope sources, particle accelerators, dosimetric terms and units of dosimetry, calorimetry, ionization measurements, chemical dosimetry, Fricke dosimeter, Ceric sulphate dosimeter, dosimetry in pulse radiolysis.
Solid excited molecules, free radical due to radiation pulse radiolysis, radiation effects on gases ( i.e. H2, N2, O2, methane), on water, on biological systems. Maximum permissible dose and lethal dose.
Applications of radiation in chemical synthesis, industrial processes, sterilization, polymerization, polymer modification, waste treatment, food preservation.
Unit IV : Advanced Chemical Dynamics:
A. Gas phase reactions: 8L
Thermodynamic formulation of transition state theory for bimolecular reactions. Symmetry numbers and statistical factors, prediction of pre-exponential factors. Transmission coefficient, isotopic effect, quantum mechanical tunneling, reactions of muonium.
B. Reactions in solutions: 8L
Cage effect, encounter complexes and diffusion effect, full diffusion controlled and partial diffusion controlled reactions. Influence of ionic strength for reaction between ions. Problems based on chemical dynamics.
C. Reaction dynamics: 8L
Molecular-dynamical calculations for H+H2 and Br+H2 reactions. Chemiluminescence method of highly diluted flames & diffusion flames, molecular beams, stripping mechanism.
Unit V : Electrochemistry:
A. Sources of Energy: 8L
Thermodynamic efficiency of energy conversion, photochemical methods, energy from solar radiations, solar cells (I) Silicon solar cell (ii) Cadmium sulfide cuprous sulfide solar cell. Photochemical processes at semiconductor electrodes, photodecomposition of water Honda cell.
B. Fuel cells: 8L
(i)Hydrogen-Oxygen fuel cell (ii) Hydrocarbon- air fuel cell.
C. Electric storage cells: 8L
(i) Lead-Acid storage battery, (ii) Edison cell, (iii) Nickel-Cadmium cell (iv) Sodium-Sulphur cell.
List of Books
1. Solar energy utilization G. D. Rai, khanna publication
2. Non conventional energy G. D. Rai, khanna publication
3. Fuel Cells A. M. C. Dangall.
4. Physical Chemistry, P. W. Atkins.
5. Introduction to Radiation chemstry J. W. T. Spinks and R.J. Woods
6. Essentials of Nuclear Chemistry H. J. Arnikar.
7. Fundamentals of Photochemistry K. K. Rohatgi and Mukherji.
8. Electrochemistry, Philip H. Rieger, Prentice Hall international inc.
9. Modern Electrochemistry, Vol. 2 Bockaris and Raddy.
10. Text book of Polymer Science, F. W. Billmeyer Jr. Wiley.
11. Polymer Science V. R. Gowarikar, N. V. Vishwanathan and J. Sreedhar, Wiley-Eastern.
12. Chemical Kinetics, K.J.Laidler, 3rd Ed. Harper and Row, 1987.
13. Chemical Kinetics: A Study of Reaction rates in solution, K.A.Connors, V.C.H. Publications. 1990
14. Chemical Kinetics and Dynamics, J.I.Steinfeld, J.S.Francisco and W.L.Hase, Prentice Hall, 1989.
15. Kinetics and Mechanism of Chemical Transfomations, J. Rajaraman and J. Kuriacose, McMillan.
(Industrial chemistry special paper-I)
Total Lectures : 120 Hours, 4 Hours/week, 24 Hours/unit Total Marks : 75
Unit-I : A) Catalysis : Introduction, types, homogeneous & heterogeneous, Basic principles, mechanism, factors affecting the performance, introduction to phase transfer catalysis.
Industrial catalysts : Raney nickel, other forms of nickel, palladium and supported palladium, copper chromate, vanadium & platinum based catalyst.
Aluminium alkoxides, titanium tetrachloride & titanates, titanium dioxide & Zeigler Natta catalyst and zeolite catalysts.
B) Chemical processes for the manufacture of Heavy chemical like - Soda ash, bicarbonates, chlorine, caustic soda, bleaching power, calcium carbides and acids like H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, H3Po4 (10 periods)
Unit-II : A) Industrial Gases : Heavy chemicals and Production of gases. Chemistry, manufacture, storage, Hazards & uses. - Hydrogen, Oxygen, nitrogen, carbondioxide, chlorine, fluorine So2, phosgene, acetylene, argon, neon & helium.
Fertilizers: Fertilizer industries in India, Manufacture of Ammonium salts, Urea, nitrates, Ammonia, Nitrogenous fertilizers, phosphatic fertilizers, superphosphates, complex fertilizers, nitrogen fixation.
B) Cement : Types of cement, manufacture- processes, and setting of cement.
Glass : Types, their composition & properties, manufacture of glass fitness, optical glass, coloured glasses, Lead glass and neutron absorbing glass.
Ceramics: Introduction, types, manufacturing process, applications & refractories.
Unit-III : A) Materials of construction for chemical plant.
i) Metals and Alloys :Copper, Aluminium,Nickel, titanium and their alloys. Mechanical & chemical properties and their applications.
ii) Corrosion : Types of corrosion relevant to chemical industries, mechanism & prevention methods.
iii) Polymeric Materials : Industrial polymer and composite materials, their constitution, chemical and physical properties, industrial applications.
B) Fundamentals of Heat transfer :
i) Methods of heat transfer, Fouriers law, Newtons law, heat transfer by Conductance, by Convection and by radiation. Heat exchanger, types of heat exchanger, overall heat transfer, co-efficient double pipe heat exchanger, Shell & tube type etc.
ii) Fluid flow: fluid flow phenomenon, introduction, Laminar flow, Turbulant flow, Reynolds number, Bernoulls equation , Fans, blowers, compressors, pumps etc.
Unit-IV : Unit Operations and Unit Processes :-
A) i) Distillation : Flash distillation,differential distillation, rectification, plate columns, packed columns.
ii) Gas Absorption: Introduction,equipments, packed columns, spray column, mechanically agitated contacters.
iii) Evaporation : Introduction, short tube evaporator, forced circulation evaporator, falling film, climbing film, agitated evaporators.
iv) Filtration : Introduction, Filter media, filter aids, equipments sparkler filter, sand filters, bag filters, rotary drum filter etc. centrifuge.
v) Crystallisation : Introduction, solubility, supersaturation, nucleation, crystal growth, equipments tank crystallizer, Swenson-Walker crystallizer, Oslo crystallizer.
vi) Drying : Introduction, free moisture, bound moisture, drying curve, equipments: tray dryer, fluid bed dryer, drum dryer.
B) Material Balance without chemical reactions, flow diagram, with or without recycle or by-pass for above processes.
Material Balance involving chemical reactions. Concept of limiting reactant, conversion, purge operation and energy balance.
Unit processes in organic chemicals manufacture with one or two examples such as Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation.
Unit-V : Industrial Management & Economics and Safety:-
A. Chemical Process Economics:-
Factors involved in project cost, estimation methods employed for the estimation of capital investment.
Methods of determining depreciation.
Competitive & monopoly markets, some aspects of marketing, profitability criterion.
Economics of selecting alternatives.
Break even point, production scheduling.
B. Industrial Management.
- Concept of scientific management in industry.
Functions of management: Decision making, planning, organising, Material management, Inventory control, Information system & decision making.
C. Safety :
General occupational safety, flammable materials. Handling, fuel fighting equipments, control measures for Toxic chemicals. Safety with chemical engineering. operations, hazardous chemical process. Safety in Laboratories and pilot plant. Safety in transportation & storage of chemicals, management of safety & loss prevention.
Books for Paper-III
(Industrial Chemistry Special Paper-I)
1. Manual of Chemical technology Vol.I & II by Venketesharul, Educational Development Centre IJT, Madras, 1977.
2. Chemical Processes Industries by R.N.Shreve & M J.A.Brink , Mc Graw Hill LTD 4th Ed.12977.
3. Charles E.Dryden Outline of Chemical Technology Edited by M.Gopal Rao and Marshall Siting, East West Press 2nd Ed. 1973.
4. Catalysis in Theory & Practice, ridder, E.K. and Taylor,H.S.
5. Phase Trensfer Catalysis, Principles and Techniques, Starles, C.
6. Surface Chemistry by J.J.Bikermann, Academic Press
7. Physical Chemistry of Surfaces, A.W.Aclamson.
8. Material Science , O.P.Khanna, Khanna Publishers, Delhi.
9. Engineering Chemistry by Dr.S.S.Dara.
10. Text Book Industrial Chemistry, Pragati Agencies Pune-2.
11. McCabe and Smith, Unit Operations of Chemical Engineerting, Mc Graw Hill.
12. Budger and Banchero, Introduction to Chemical Engineering Mac graw Hill.
13. Heat and Mass Transfer By A.G.Gavane, Nirali Prakashan, Pune.Vol.I & II.
14. Heat Transfer by Arora and Damkondwar, Pune.
15. Economics of Chemical Industry, Hempel. E.M.
16. Industrial Organization & Management, Bethal L.L.
(INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY SPECIAL PAPER-II)
Total lectures : 120 Hours,
4 Hours per week,
24 lectures per unit.
Unit-I : Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Technology:
A) Petroleum refining practice
- Petroleum Refining in India
- Indian Standards for Motor gasoline, Kerosene and Diesel
- Atmospheric and vacuum distillation of crude
- Petroleum coking and visbreaking
- Fluidised catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic alkylation, catalytic isomerisation.
- Hydrocracking & Hydrotreating
- Lube processing.
B) Petrochemical Industry.:
- Petrochemical Industry in India.
- Petrochemical Feed stocks.
- Naphtha cracking & separation and purification of olefins to get ethylene, propylene, butylene etc..
- Manufacture of BTX aromatics
- Butadiene & Xylenes separation techniques.
- Important monomers like, Styrene, DMT & Caprolactum
- Methane (C1 chemicals) & its important derivatives synthesis gas etc.
- Ethane, ethylene & acetylene (C2 chemicals) and their derivatives.
- Propane (C3 chemicals) & its important derivatives.
- Butane (C4 chemicals) & its important derivatives.
Unit-II : Agrochemicals and Dyes:
A) Inorganic insecticides : - Arsenic insecticides, fluoro insecticides.
Insecticides of plant origins: - Nicotine, nornicotine, pyrethroides, ratenoids, analagin, allethnin.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons :- DDT, dilan sulphenex, DFDT, endosulphan.
Dithiophoshoric acid derivatives:- Melathion, dimethoate, dimecron.
Diphosphoric acid derivatives :- Parathion, methyl parathion, thiophos, chlorthion, paraoxon.
Pyrophosphoric acid derivatives.
Other organophosphorus Insecticides.
Carlang, isolom, phyrolan, baygon.
Sulphur, limesulphur, copper sulphate, Bordeaux paste, Bordeaux paint, Burgundy, copper oxychloride.
Ethyl mercuric chloride, cereasn Dithiocarbamates - Ziram, thiram, Zinc, Captan.
Miscallaneous fungicides :- Polpet, Bavistin.
i) Chemistry of dyes:- Introduction, classification of dyes on the basis of structure and the mode of application to the fibre. Colour and chemical constitution of dyes. General methods of preparation of important azodyes, Cyanindyes and anthraquinone vat dyes
ii) Chemistry of intermediates :- Introduction to the history of dyes. Natural to synthetic dyes.
Benzene Intermediates:-Chloronitrobenzene Nitroanilines, diaminobenzenes.
Naphthalene intermediates:- Napthyl sulphuric acids, Napthyl amine sulphuric acids.
Anthraquinone intermediates & Miscallaneous
(i) Amino anthraquinones, methyl & methylamino anthraquinones, Disperse dye intermediates, disperse - reactive intermediates.
iii) Analysis & applications of dyes :-
Different methods used in analysis, Nitrate value determination, Coupling value, titanus chloride reduction, metal estimations - Cu, Ni, Cr etc.
Dyeing methods :- Dyeing methods for direct, Acid, reactive, disperse, vat, Cataionic, Sulphur, Indigo and azoics.
Unit-III : Pharmaceuticals:-
A) Product profile study of the following drugs and drug intermediates with particular stress on the manufacturing process engineering problems involved, quality control, equipment and economics:
(i) Sulpha drugs :- sulphaguanidine, sulphamethoxazole.
(ii) Antimicrobial:- chloramphenicol, Streptomycin, Tetracyclines cifron.
(iii) Analgesic:- anti inflammatory, Acetyl Salicyclic acid, Ibuprofen, paracetamol.
(iv) Vitamin - Vit. A, Vit. B6, Vit. C.
(v) Barbiturates :- Pentobarbital.
(vi) Beta-Blockers :- Proranolol, atenolol, Beta-Nifedine, (Antihypertension)
(vii) Cardiovascular agent :- Methyldopa, enalaprilmaleate, Benazeprill.
(viii) Antihistamines - Chloropheneramine maleate.
(ix) Antidepressants - Resperidone, sertraline.
(x) Anticancer drugs & antiaids.
B) Relationship of Chemical Structure and Biological activities of the drugs, Drugs screening, receptor theory and drug penodi design.
Unit IV : Polymers :-
1) Nomenclature, classification of polymer : Natural and synthetic polymers, organic and inorganic polymers, thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers, plastics elastomers, fibres and liquid resin, block & graft co-polymers.
2) Types of polymerisation: Addition (chain):
Polymerisation- free radical, ionic, coordination and their mechanism, condensation (step) polymerisation - polycondensation, polyaddition, ring opening, linear and cross-linked and their mechanism, co-polymerisation.
3) Techniques of polymerisation: Bulk, solution, suspension and emulsion polymerisation.
4) Molecular weight and size : Number-average and weight-average molecular weights, viscosity-average molecular weight, degree of polymerisation, significance of polymer molecular weight, size of polymer molecule; Molecular weight determination: by Cryoscopy, Osmometry (membrane & vapour phase), end group analysis, viscometry and light scattering methods.
5) Physical characteristics of polymers : Glass transition temperature and crystallinity of polymer, Determination of glass transition temperature.
6) Characterisation of polymers: By TGA, DTA, DSC, IR & NMR methods.
7) Manufacture, porperties and uses of following polymers:
i) Natural and synthetic rubber
ii) Synthetic fibers - polyesters, polyamides, rayons
iii) Synthetic plastics: Polyoliefins, polyurathanes
UNIT V : Pulp, Paper and Sugar Industries :
A) PULP AND PAPER TECHNOLOGY:-
(a) Chemistry of paper making, raw-material
- physical properties of wood, classification of woods, plants used in pulp and paper, grass.
- chemical composition of wood , non-weedy fibers used in pulping.
- Lignin - lignification in wood, chemical aspects of lignin formation.
- structure and properties of lignin.
- Preparation of pulp, wood, cheeps
- Manufacture of mechanical pulp, woods used, types, grades and uses.
- Equipments for ground wood pulping process
- Semichemical pulping , wood preparation, digesters
- Steam cooking
- Utilisation of secondary fibres.
- Rag pulping.
- Bleaching of wood pulp - Bleaching practice
- Stock preparation - Internal Sizing of papers
- Filling - Additives
- types of paper machine - sheet formation
- press section - drying of papers
- Cylinder mould type - calendering
- speciality papers - injection moulding
B] SUGAR INDUSTRIES:
Manufaturing of sugar From sugar cane: Introduction, Agriculture, Harvesting, preparation of cane for milling, Juice extraction, diffusion, juice purification, evaporation, crystallization (Production of raw sugar) Centrifugation, sugar refining, decolourisation, purification, filtration, crystallization grade analysis.
Analysis of Bagasse & Molasses
By products of sugar industry
Sugar industries in Maharashtra
List of Books for Paper-IV
(Industrial Chemistry Special Paper-II)
1. Modern Petroleum Technology by G.D.Hobson and W.Pohl.
2. Petroleum Refining Engineering by W.L.Nelson
3. Petroleum Refining Technology and Economics by J.H.Gary and G.E.Hardwork
4. The Petroleum Chemical Industry by Goldstein and Waddams
5. Petroleum Processing Handbook by W.E.Bland & R.L.Davidson
6. A Text on Petrochemicals by Dr.B.K.Bhaskar Rao Khanna Publishers, New Delhi.
7. Modern Petroleum Refining Processes by Dr.B.K.Bhaskar Rao, Oxford, I.B.H., 1984.
8. Petroleum Products Handbook - V.B.Guthrie.
9. Pesticides - Color Publications, P.L.Bombay.
10. Elements of plant protection by L.L.Pyenson, John Wiley & Sons.
11. Chemistry of Pesticides by N.N.Melnikov Springer - Verlag, New York.
12. Fungicides in Plant Disease Control, by Y.L.Nene Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi.
13. Methods of Pesticide Analysis, By Sree Ramuly, U.I. Oxford and IBH Publisher.
14. Synthetic Dyes by Venkatram (Vol. I & II)
15. Chemical Process Industries by Shreve and Brink (Jr.)
16. Fundamental Processes of Dye Chemistry by Fietz.
17. Dyes & Intermediates by Abrahaedt.
18. ISI Bulletin for the Specifications of Products listed in Papers 5,6 & 7.
19. Indian Pharmacopoeia, 1985.
20. British Pharmacopoeia, 1990.
21. Pharmaceutical Dosage forms.
22. Text Book of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Wilson, Gisvold, Degge; Lippinett Toppan.
23. Essentials of Medicinal Chemistry by Korolkovas and Burkhatter - Wiley - Inter science.
24. Text Book of Polymer Science by F.Bill Mayer, Wiley Inter science.
25. Polymer Science by V.Gowarikar, N.Viswanathan & J.Sreedhar, New Age International (p) Ltd. Publishers, New Delhi.
26. Physical Chemistry of Polymers by D.D.Deshpande, Tata McGraw - Hill.
27. Principles of Polymer Chemistry by P.J.Flory Cornell Univ. Press.
28. Introduction to Polymer Chemistry by R.B.Seymour, McGraw Hill.
29. Laboratory Preparation of Macro Chemistry, By E.M.M. Effery, McGraw Hill.
30. A Practical course in Polymer Chemistry by S.J.Pnnea, Pergamon Press.
31. Pulp & Paper Chemistry & Chemical Technology by James P. Casey.
32. The Chemistry of Cellulose by Emit Ptauseg, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
list of practicals
Time : 6-8 hours (One day) 6 Hours/week50 Marks
A minimum of 20 out of 25 exercises should be performed. The computer should be used in atleast ten experiments involving extensive calculations and graphs.
1) Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of -
i) Chromium and Manganese
ii) Titanium and Vanadium.
iii)Cobalt and Chromium
2) Determinations of Pk value of acid-base indicators (Methyl red / Methylene blue / Bromocresol purple) by spectrophotometry.
3) Photometric titration of ferric ion with salicyclic acid and Cu-EDTA.
4) Determination of dissociation constant of a polybasic acids potentiometrically (Oxalic / Phosphoric)
5) Estimation of mixture of halides by Potentiometric method.
6) Pk values of sparingly soluble acid by potentiometry.
7) Conductometric titrations of mixture of acids and salts.
8) Determination of the strength of commercial phosphoric acid / vinegar by conductometric titrations.
9) Analysis of Aspirin by conductometric and potentiometric methods.
10) Determination of Half wave potential of metal ions by polarography.
11) Simultaneous determination of suitable metal ions by polorography.
12) Analysis of Malathion by Polarography.
13) Determination of Na, K, Li and Ca by Flame Photometry individually and mixtures.
14) Determination of capacity of anion and cation exchange resins by column method.
15) Separation and estimation of Fe2+, Co2+ and Ni2+ by anion exchange.
16) Separation and estimation of -
i) Cobalt and Nickel
ii) Calcium and Zinc and
iii) Zinc and Magnesium by anion exchange.
17) Separation and estimation of Halide by anion exchanges.
18) Separation and estimation of Fe+3 and Mg+2 by solvent extraction.
19) Solvent extraction of binary mixtures i.e. Al/Mg, Mg/VO2, Cu/Ni, Cu/Co etc. and Quantitative determination by spectrophotometry.
20) Nickel / Molybdenum / tungston / Vanadium / Uranium etc.by extractive spectrophotometric method.
21) Separation, identification and Quantitiative determination of metal ions by paper chromatography. (Ascending/descending/ circular/ 2D etc.)
22) Separation and identification of sugars/honey :
Glucose + Fructose + Sucrose by paper chromatography and determination of Rf.
23) Thin layer chromatographic separation and identification of -
i) Metal ions (Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn etc.)
ii) Amino acids/Organic Compounds
iii) Sulpha drugs in tablets and Ointments.
24) Water analysis :
i) Determination of hardness,alkalinity, Halides, Fluoride, Nitrite, Nitrate and Sulphate.
ii) Determination of DO, COD and BOD.
iii) Determination of toxic metals viz As, Cd, Pb, Cr, Hg and Ni in water and Waste water by suitable method.
25) Estimation of oxygen and Carbondioxide in a mixture by Orsat apparatus.
1. Day and Underwood : Quantitative Analysis
2. A.I.Vogal : A text book of quantitative Analysis
3. Flaschka : EDTA Titration
4. Meites and Thomas : Advanced Analytical Chemistry
5. G.W.Ewing : Instrumental methods of Chemical Analysis.
6. R.S.Drago : Physical methods in Inorganic Chemistry
7. G.D.Christian : Analytical Chemistry
8. S.M.Khopkar : Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry
9. Kolltath and Ligane : Polarography
10. Braun : Instrumental methods of Chemical Analysis
11. Willard, Merritt & Dean : Instrumental methods of Analysis
12. Strouts,Crifillan and : Analytical Chemistry Wilson
13. J.W.T.Spinks and : Introductions to Radiation
14. S.A.Skoog and D.W. : Fundamentals of Analytical
15. R.V.Dilts : Analytical Chemistry
16) A.I.Vogel - A text book quantitative Inorganic analysis.
17) D.V.Jahagirdar - Experiments in Chemistry.
18) T.K.Chondhekar - Systematic experiments in physical chemistry.
19) G.J.Wlehov - Standard method of chemical analysis, 6th Edn.
20) G.D.Cheristian - Analytical Chemistry, 6th Edn.
21) Willard, Merritt & Dean - Instrumental Method of Analysis.
* Distribution of Marks :
i) Exercise-I - 20 Marks
ii) Exercise-II - 15 Marks
iii) Practical Record - 10 Marks
iv) Viva-Voce - 05 Marks
Total - 50 Marks
practical-II (Inorganic chemistry special)
Time : 14-16 hours (Two days) 12 Hours/week Marks : 150
The computer should be used in experiments involving calculation and graphs.
Unit-I : Quantitative Inorganic Analysis :
1) Determination of calcium, magnesium, phosphates and chloride from biological fluids (urine etc.)
2) Detection and determination of ascorbic acid / Vitamin A from biological sample.
3) Extraction and absorption spectral study of chlorophylls from green leaves.
4) Biological study of coordination compounds (Antibacterial / Antifungal etc.)
5) Determination of Phosphorous from plant sample / serum by spectrophotometry.
6) Determination of iron from pharmaceutical samples and coordination compounds.
7) Determination of calcium in calcium sandoz / calcium lactate etc by complexemetry.
8) Analysis of talcum and nyclin powders (Mg-complexometry, Zno / H3BO3)
9) Determination of iron in soap bar.
10) Determination of EDTA in detergent and shampoos.
11) Determination of fluoride content in the tooth paste and industrial effluents.
12) Determination of iron, calcium and phosphorous in milk powder.
13) Determination of Cobalt and Silver from coordination compounds and laboratory waste.
14) Analysis of cement / paint / soil.
Unit-II : Study of complex formation :
1) To determine the formula and formation of a complex by spectrophotometry (Job's, Mole / Slope-ratio methods)
2) To determine stepwise proton - ligand and metal - ligand stability constant of complex by Irving-Rossotti methods.
3) To determine the instability constant of complex by potentiometry (AgNH3, thiosulphate)
4) To determine the composition and formation constant of a Fe-SSA complex by conductometry.
5) Determination of composition and stability constant of complex by polarography.
Unit-III : Inorganic Reaction Mechanism :
Kinetics and mechanism of following reactions.
1) Substitution reactions in octahedral complexes (Acid/Base hydrolysis)
2) Redox reaction in octahedral complexes.
3) Isomerism reaction of octahyedral complexes.
4) Enzyme kinetics in presence of metal ions.
5) To determine the corrosion rate of metal strip.
6) To study the 1,10 phenanthroline as corrosion inhibiter for mild steel in sulphuric acid.
7) To study the adsorption and desorption of gases on heterogenous catalyst.
Unit-IV : Solid State :
1) Preparation of oxides and mixed oxides (Mn2O3 , NiO, Cu2O, Fe3O4, ZnFe2O4, ZnMn2O4, CuMn2O4 and NiFe2O4.)
2) Preparation of Silica and Alumina by Sol-Gel technique.
3) To study the electrical conductivity of ferrites, Magnetites, doped oxides and pure samples and determine band gap energy.
Unit-V : Synthesis and Characterisation :
1) Synthesis of metal complexes / polymers / lanthanide complexes and their structural characterizations by possible physical methods such as : elemental analysis, m.p., solubility, MW, molar conductance, magnetic, IR and electronic spectral data (Minimum five)
Unit-VI : Spectral Interpretation :
Spectral interpretation of complexes / compounds (UV, IR, NMR, Mass XRD etc.)
Practical - II
Distribution of Marks :
i) Exercise-1 based on Unit-I - 35 Marks
ii) Exercise-2 based on Unit-II, III & IV - 35 Marks
iii) Exercise-3 based on Unit-IV & V - 30 Marks
iv) Exercise-4 based on Unit-VI - 15 Marks
v) Record - 20 Marks
vi) Viva-Voce - 15 Marks
Total - 150 Marks
List of Books for practicals :
1) Inorganic Experiments, J.Derek Woollins, VCH.
2) Microscale Inorganic Chemistry, Z. Szafran, R.M.Pike and M.M.Singy, Wiley.
3) Practical Inorganic Chemistry, G.Marr and B.W. Rockett, Van Nostrand.
1) A.I.Vogel : A Text Books of Quantitative Inorganic Analysis
2) D.V.Jahagirdar : Experiments in Chemistry
(Himalaya Publishing House)
3) R.M.Verma : Analytical Chemistry 3rd ed.
(Theory and Practice)
4) Yu.Lyalikov : Physicochemical Analysisc (Mir Publishers)
5) G.J.Wlcher : Standard Methods of Chemical
Analysis 6th Ed.
(Kreger Publishing Company)
6) D.A.Skoog & : Fundamentals of Analytical
D.M.West : Chemistry, Holt, Rehehart and
7) W.L.Jolly : The Synthesis and Characterisation on Inorganic Compounds Practice-hall 1970
8) Jayaraman J. : Laboratory Mannual in Biochemistry, Wiley eastern 1981.
9) Vogel A.I. : A Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistrty, Longmans
10) W.F.Hillebrand : Applied Inorganic Analysis; John Willey & Sons
11) Ewing : Instrumental Method of Analysis
12) E.C.Subbarao, Tata : Experiments in material science
organic chemistry special practicals
Duration 14 to 16 Hours (2 days) 12-Hours/week Marks : 150
Unit-I : Qualitative analysis :
Separation and identification of the components of a mixture of three organic compounds (three solids, two solids and one liquid, two liquids and one solid, and all the three liquids) using chemical methods or physical techniques. Purification of the compounds by crystallization, chromotographic techniques. (Minimum of 12 mixtures to be do done)
Unit-II : Multistep Organic Synthesis :
The exercises should illustrate the use of organic reagents and may involve the purification of the compounds by using chromotographic techniques (minimum 10 preparations are to be done).
1) Photochemical reaction
2) Beckmann Rearrangement : Benzanilide from Benzene.
3) Benzilic acid rearrangement.
4) Synthesis of heterocyclic compound.
Skarup synthesis. Preparation of quinoline from aniline.
5) Fischer-Indole synthesis; preparation of 2-phenyl indole from phenyl hydrazine.
6) Hantzch synthesis of 2-amino thiazole.
7) Preparation of P-Bromoaniline frrom aniline.
8) Preparation of P-nitroaniline from aniline.
9) 2-Hydroxy Chalcone from p-cresol.
10) 6-Methylflavone from 2-hydroxy-5-methyl-acetophenone.
11) Preparation of 8-acetyl-7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin.
12) Preparation of PABA from p-Toludine.
13) Synthesis of unsymmetrical thiourea.
14) Stereospecific reduction of benzoin with NaBH4.
15) Chemo selective reduction of 3-Nitroacetophenone.
16) Preparation of Eosin from phthalic anhydride.
17) Preparation of m-nitroaniline from benzene.
18) Preparation of 2-aminobenzothiozole from aniline.
Unit-III : a) Extraction of Organic Compounds from natural sources.
1) Isolation of caffine from tea leaves.
2) Isolation of casein from milk.
3) Isolation of lactose from milk.
4) Isolation of nicotine from tobacco.
5) Isolation of piperine from black paper.
6) Isolation of lycopene from tomatoes.
7) Isolation of b-carotene from carrots.
b) Organic Estimation.
1) Estimation of nitrogen.
2) Estimation of halogen.
3) Estimation of sulphur.
Spectrophotometric / Calorimetric Estimation.
4) Estimation of sterptomycin sulphate.
5) Estimation of B-12.
6) Estimation of amino acids.
7) Estimation of proteins.
8) Estimation of carbohydrates.
9) Estimation of Ascorbic Acid.
10) Estimation of Asprin.
11) Solvent extraction of oil from oil seeds and determination of saponification value, Iodine value of the same oil.
Unit-IV : Structure Elucidation of organic compounds on the basis of spectral data (UV, IR, PMR, 13CNMR, and Mass)
(Minimum 12 compounds are to be analysed during regular practicals).
organic special practical
distribution of marks
Unit-I : Mixture analysis - 35 marks
Unit-II : Three stage preparation - 35 marks
Unit-III : Estimation / Isolation - 30 marks
Unit-IV : Spectral Interpretation - 15 marks
Record - 20 marks
Viva-voce - 15 marks
Total - 150 marks
Practical - II
Physical Chemistry Special Practical
Duration 2 days, 14- 16 hours. 12 Hours/week Marks 150
At least 15 Experiments must be performed from each unit.
Unit-I : a) Thermodynamics :
1. Determination of partial molar volume of solute (e.g.KCl) and solvent in a binary mixture.
2. Determination of the temperature dependent of the solubility of a compound in two solvents in two similar intermolecular interactions (benzonic acid) in water and in DMSO-water mixture) and calculate the partial molar heat of solution.
3. To study the variation of the solubility of the calcium sulphate with ionic strength and hence determine the thermodynamic solubility product (complexometric titration with EDTA.
b) Chemical Kinetics :
1. To study the effect of Cu2+ and Ag+ ions on S2O82-- + I- reaction.
2. To study the kinetics of the decomposition of violet colour (IV) Oxidation product of n-phenyl anthanilic acid.
3. To study the rate of dissociation of tris-o-phenonthroline nickel (II) ion in acid solution.
4. To study the hydrolysis of tris (1,10-phenanthroline) iron (II) Complex in acid solution.
5. To study the kinetics of reaction between acetone and iodine in acetic medium by half life method and determine the order with respect to Iodine and acetone.
6. To study the effect of solvent (DMSO-water, DMF-water, Acetone-water system) on the rate of acid catalysed hydrolysis of acetal by dilatometry.
7. To study the reaction between bromic acid and hydroiodic acid.
c) Heterogeneous equillibria :
1. To determine the formula of copper ammonia complex by partition method.
2. To study the molecular complex formation between picric acid and naphthalene by partition coefficient method (water and CCl4 or CHCl3).
3. To determine the degree of hydrolysis and hydrolytic constant for the hydrolysis of aniline hydrochloride by partition method.
4. Separation and Determination of Fe (III) and Mg (II) / Zn (II) using ethyl acetate / ether.
d) Viscosity and surface tension :
1. To study the effect of pH on the viscosity of colloidal solution (gelatin) and verification of Krascy-Ergen equation.
2. To determine the b value of KCl in water and 5% sucrose solution.
3. To calculate the surface area of absorbed alcohol molecule in a monolayer from surface tension measurements of acqueous solutions of alcohol.
4. To investigate the relation between chain length of alcohols and their ability to lower surface tension of water due to adsorption at the water surface.
5. Salting effects of structure makers and structure breaker salts on p-aminophenol in water and dioxane.
Unit-II : a) Cryoscopy :
1. To determine the molecular weight of benzonic acid in benzene and find the degree of association by measuring lower in freezing point.
2. To determine the diffusion coefficient of Co2+ through Egg membrane.
b) Cromotography :
1. Identify and seperate the components of a given mixture of amino acid. (Glycine asparitic acid, glutamic acid and tyrosine) by two dimensional paper chromatography.
2. Separation of the metal cations (Co, Ni, Zn, Mn) and the Rf values by paper chromotography.
3. Separate and identify the sugar present in honey by paper chromatography and find their Rf value.
The computer should be used in experiments involving extensive calculations and graphs.
c) Transport number :
1) To determine the transport number of ions by the moving boundary method.
2) To determine the transport number of ions by the Hittorf's method.
d) Conductometry :
1) To determine normality of weak acid conductometrically by Righellato and Devies method.
2) To determine simultaneously the pKa and Ka of a weak acid by interactive method.
3) To determine the concentration of KCl solution by titrating with standard AgNO2 by conductomery.
4) To investigate the complexometric reaction between KCl and Hg(ClO4)2 by conductomery.
Unit-III : a) Polarography and Amperometry :
1) To determine the dissolve oxygen in aqueous solution of organic solvent.
2) Estimation of anions (bromide, iodide, nitrate, dichromate)
3) To study the reduction of benzaldehyde in acidic and basic solutions.
4) To determine the concentration of lead ion by amperometric titration with potassium dichromate.
5) To determine the concentration of Fe3+ ion by amperometric titration with titanous ion.
b) Spectrophotometry :
1) To study the absorption spectrum of a conjugated dye and verification of quantum mechanics of particle in a one dimensional box.
2) To determine the nature and number of species in a given sample by spectrophotometry.
3) Spectral measurements of phenolphthalein at extreme acidic (pH<1) and extreme basic (pH>11) conditions.
4) Aggregation of methyl orange in water by spectrophotometry and conductometry.
5) To determine the dimerization constant of acridine orange in aqueous solution.
6) Determination of microscopic ionization constants of cysteine.
C) Flame Photometry :
1) Determination of Ca2+ and Mg2+ in tap water etc.
D) Electronics :
1) Measurements of resistance with multimeter.
2) To measure the resistance of the given ammeter.
3) Use of a Wheatstone Bridge for accurate measurement of resistance.
4) Response characteristics of RC network.
5) Response characteristics of LR network.
6) Response characteristics of LCR network.
7) To plot the characteristic curve of a diode.
8) Half-wave and Full-wave rectifier.
9) Transister Characteristics.
10) Transistor amplifier.
11) Op-Amp as non-inverting and inverting amplifier.
12) Simple integration differentiation with Op-Amp.
13) Four-probe method for resistivity measurement.
Unit-IV : Spectral interpretation for structrue elucidation of complexes or compounds.
Books Suggested. :
1) Findley's Practical Physical Chemistry, B.P.Levitt, Longman.
2) Practical Physical Chemistry, A.M.James and F.E.Prichard, Longman.
3) Experimental Physical Chemistry, R.C.Das and B.Behera, Tata McGraw Hill.
4) Advanced Physical Chemistry experiments, Gurtu-Gurtu, Pragati Prakashan.
5) Experimental Physical Chemistry, V.D.Athawale and Parul Mathur, New Age International.
6) Advanced Practical Physical Chemistry, J.B.Yadao, Goel Pub.House.
7) Experiments in Physical Chemistry, Dr.D.V.Jahagirdar.
8) Systematic Experimental Physical Chemistry, Dr.T.K.Chondhekar & S.W.Rajbhoj.
9) Experiments in Physical Chemistry, D.P.Shoemaker.
10) Post Graduate Physical Chemistry Part-I by Patel, Turakhia, Kelkar, Puniyani, Himalaya publishing house.
Distribution of Marks :
Exercise from Unit-I 35 marks
Exercise from Unit-II 35 marks
Exercise from Unit-III 30 marks
Exercise from Unit-IV 15 marks
Record 20 marks
Viva 15 marks
Total 150 marks
INDUSTRIAL CHEMISTRY Special Practical
LIST OF PRACTICAL
Time : 14-16 hours (Two days) 12 Hours/week 150 Marks
1. Preparation of Raney Nickel from Ni-Al alloys and testing its properties.
2. preparation of synthetic Zeolites.
3. Preparation of aluminium isopropoxide and reactions using the same Any one reaction using above (1-3) catalysis is expected.
4. Preparation of reagent grade chemical - sodium carbonate, sulphuric acid, etc. Solvents etc.
5. Determination of N and P nitrogen and phosphorus containing fertilizer respectively by suitable methods.
6. Determination of Iron and Calcium from Cement by suitable methods.
7 Determination of Lead (pb) from Opal Glass by suitable methods
8. Determination of Aluminium and Iron in a Bouxite Ore.
9. Determination of Chromium and Manganese in stainless steel.
10. Separation of Chromium(VI) and Chromium (III) by TLC in waste water sample from Electroplating Industry.
11. Qualitative separation of Aluminium and Iron in Dolomite by Ion Exchange.
12. Extraction in packed column.
13. Experiments based on distillation under reduced pressure, fractional and steam distillation.
14. Experiments based on Simple and fractional Crystallisation.
15. Isolation of Nicotine from Tobaco leaves / waste
16. Extraction of essential Oils from Medicinal Plants ( Tikhadi)
1. Measurement of flash point, ignition point,pour point, kinematic viscosity by U-tube method.
2. Measurement of viscosity by using Red wood viscometer.
3. Determination of melting point & drop melting point of wax.
4. Determination of calorific value of fuels.
5. Softening point of Bitumen.
6. Preparation of selected pesticide formulations in the form of dusts, emulsions, sprays.
7. Estimation of endosulfon iodometrically.
8. Estimation of Copper from fungicides.
9. Estimation of sulphur from S, fungicides.
10. Effect of plant growth regulators on the development of plants & fruits.
11. Determination of pesticide contents in the soil.
12. Estimation of carboryl resides in vegetables & fruit.
13. Separation of insecticides in vegetables by TLC.
14. Estimation of pesticide resides in food articles.
15. Preparation of Methyl orange, Methyl red, orange II, Fluorescein, Quinoline, Antraquinone.
16. Dyeing of the following dyes on cotton - Direct, Azoics, Acid on wool & silk.
17. Quantitative estimations of dye by chemical & colorimetric methods.
18. Qualitative analysis of commercial available drugs including chromatographic technique.
19. Quantitative estimations of important commercially available drugs.
20. Preparation of simple drugs involving two or three steps.
21. Preparation of nylon 66.
22. Preparation of Urea HCHO resin.
23. Preparation of melamine - HCHO resin.
24. Determination of number average molecular weight (Mn) by end group analysis by conductometric method.
25. Determination of average molecular weight of polymer by viscometric method.
26. Determination of reducing sugar in cane juice.
27. Analysis of can sugar juice.
28. Determination of sugar percentage in molasses / Baggase.
29. Determination of Moisture content and ash content of the wood sample.
30. Determination of acid in soluble ligerin in the sample of wood.
31. Analysis of non fibrous materials used in pulp industries such as
caustic soda as Na2O, Soda ash as Na2O, lime as CaO.
32. Analysis of Rosin for ash, acid number and superification number.
List of Books for Practicals
1. Practical Engg. Chemistry by S.S.Dara
2. Laboratory preparation of microchemistry by E.M.M. Effery, McGraw Hill.
3. Practical course in polymer chemistry by S.J.Pnnea (Pargaman Press)
4. Practical Pharmacognosy by T.B.Willis
5. Practical Pharmacognosy by T.N.Vasudevan
6. Indian Pharmocopea 85, British Pharmacopoea, 90
7. Handbook of drugs & cosmatics by Mehrotra.
8. Methods of pesticide analysis by Sree Ramuly U.I.Oxferd & IBH Publishing Co.
9. Methods of testing for peteroleum & petroleum products.
IS 1448-1960 part I to part IV published by ISI New Delhi 1967
10. IP stands for petroleum & its products published by Applied Service Publisher Ltd. London 33rd edition 1974.
11. American Stds. for testing materials New York 1967.
12. Textbook of inorganic chemistry by A.I.Vogel.
13. Instrumental methods & analysis by Willard Mertt & Dean.
14. Industrial chemicals, Faith et.al. Wiley Interscience, New York.
15. Text book of practial organic chemistry by I.C.Voley.
16. J.K.Sttille: Industrial organic chemistry.
17. Unit operation by Kale.
18. Fisher & Fisher: Reagents for organic synthesis
19. A Weishberger : Technique of organic chemistry Vol. I Parts I-IV.
Distribution of Marks :- The practical examination will be based on the syllabus for the special branch (Industrial Chemistry)
Time : 14-16 hours (Two days examiantion) Marks : 150
i) Exercise-1 From Unit-I - 35 Marks
ii) Exercise-2 From Unit-II - 35 Marks
iii) Exercise-3 From Unit-III - 30 Marks
iv) Sessional (Including Industrial visits)- 15 Marks
v) Record - 20 Marks
vi) Viva-Voce - 15 Marks
Total - 150 Marks
List of Books (M.Sc. - Chemistry) :
1) Principles and applications of organo-transition chemistry; J.P.Collman, L.S.Hegsdus, J.R.Marten and R.G.Finke (University Science Books)
2) The Organo-metallic chemistry of transition metals : R.H.Crabtree, John Wiley Pub.
3) Metallo-organic Chemistry : A.J.Pearson, Wiley, Pub.
4) Organometallic Chemistry, R.C.Mehrotra and A.Singh, New Age International.
5) Modern Synthetic Reaction, H.O. House, W.A. Benzamin.
6) Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis, W.Carothers, Cambridge Uni.Press.
7) Advance Organic Chemistry, Reaction Mechanism and Structure : J.Marsh, J.Wiley.
8) Principles of Organic Synthesis : R.O.C.Norma and J.M.Coxan : Blackie Academic and Professional.
9) Advance Organic Chemistry Part-A & B : F.A.Carey, R.J.Sandberg : Plenum Press.
10) Designing Organic Synthesis : Stuart Warren, Wiley.
11) Organic Synthesis : J.Fuhrhop and G.Penzillin, Verlage - VCH.
12) Heterocyclic Chemistry : Vol. 1, 2, 3 R.R.Gupta, M.Kumar and V.Gupta, Springler-Verlag.
13) Chemistry of Heterocycles : T. Eicher and S.A. Haiptmann, Thime.
14) Heterocyclic Chemistry : Jolly, Kelvin and G.H.Smith, Chapman and Hall.
15) Heterocyclic Chemistry : T.L.Gilchrist, Longman Scientific Technical.
16) Contemporary Heterocyclic Chemistry : G.R.Newcomb, W.W.Paudler, Wiley Interscience.
17) An Introduction to Heterocyclic Compounds. R.L.Acheson : John Wiley.
18) Natural Product Chemistry and Biological Significance, J.Mann, R.S.Davidson, J.B.Hobbar, D.V.Banthrope and J.D.Harbourn.
19) Organic Chemistry Vol.2 : I.L.Finar, ELBS.
20) Stereoselective Synthesis : A practical approach : A.M.Nicgradia VCH.
21) Chemistry Biological, Pharmacological : Properties of Medicinal Plants : Kurt Hostettmann, M.P.Gupta, and Marshtone : Harwood Aca.Publisher.
22) Introduction to flavonoids : B.A.Bohn, Harward Aca.Publi.
23) New Trends in Natural Product Chemistry. Ataur Rahman, and M.I.Choudhari., Harwood Acad.Publ.
24) Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry : A Gringuag, Wiley, VCH.
25) Wilson and Gasold : Text book Organic medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, R.S.Dorge.
26) Introduction to Drug, Design : S.S.Pande and G.R.Dimmock, New Age International.
27) Bergers Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Vol.I : M.E.Wolf, John Wiley.
28) Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action : R.B.Silverman : Academic Press.
29) Mechanism and Theory in Organic Chemistry : T.H.Lowney and K.C.Richardson, Harper and Roud.
30) Physical Organic Chemistry : N.Issacs ELBS, Longmann.
31) Text Book of Polymer Science : S.W.Billonayer, J.Wiley.
32) Polymer Science : V.R.Gowarikar, N.V.Vishwanathan and P.J.Shreedhar, Wiley Interscience.
33) Contemporary Polymer Chemistry : H.R.Ancoct, F.W.Lambs : Prentice Hall.
34) Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds : R.L.Shridhar and B.Y.Cartin.
35) Semimicro Qualitative Organic Analysis : N.D.Cheronis, J.B.Entrikin and E.M.Hortnett.
36) Experimental Organic Chemistry : M.P.Doyle, W.S.Mungal.
37) Small Scale Organic Preparation : P.J.Hill.
38) Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds : P.S.Kalsi : New Age International.
39) Stereochemistry of Organic Compounds : D.Narsipuri : New Age International.
40) A Guidebook of Mechanism of an Organic Chemistry, Peter-Syker : Longman.
41) Organic Chemistry : R.T.Morrison and R.N.Boyd, Prpentice Hall.
42) Pericyclic Reactions : S.M.Mukharji : MacMillan India.
43) Analytical Chemistry : Gary D.Christian : John Wiley & Sons.
44) Modern Spectroscopy : J.M.Hollas : John Wiley.
45) Applied Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis : H.Windawi and F.L.Ho : Wiley Interscience.
46) NMR, NQR, EPR and Marsbaur Spectroscopy in Inorganic Chemistry; R.B.Parish, Ellis Harwood.
47) Physical methods in Chemistry : R.S.Drago, Saunders College.
48) Chemical Application of Group Theory : F.A.Cotton.
49) Introduction to Molecular Spectroscopy : G.M.Barrod, McGraw Hill.
50) Basic Principles of Spectroscopy : R.Chang : McGraw Hill.
51) Theory and Application of UV spectroscopy, H.H.Joffe and M.Orchin, JBH Oxford.
52) Introduction to Photoelectron Spectroscopy : P.K.Ghosh, J.Wiley.
53) Introduction to Magnetic Resonance : A Carrington, and A.D.Machachalan, Harper & Sons.
54) Fundamentals of Analytical Chemistry : D.A.Skoog, D.M.West and F.J.Hollar, W.B.Saunders.
55) Analytical Chemistry : Principles : J.H.Kennedy, W.B.Saunders.
56) Analytical Chemistry : Principles & Technique : L.G.Hargis, Prentice Hall.
57) Principles of Instrumental Analysis : D.A.Skoog and J.L.Lowry, W.B.Saunders.
58) Qunatitative Analysis : R.A.Day Jr. and A.L.Onderwood, Prentice Hall.
59) Environmental Solution Analysis : S.M.Khopkar, Wiley Eastern.
60) Basic Concepts of Analytical Chemistry : S.M.Khopkar, Wiley Eastern.
61) Handbook of Instrumental Technique for Analytical Chemistry : F.Settle, Prentice Hall.
62) Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compound : R.M.Silverstein, G.C.Bassles, T. C.Morill, J.Wiley.
63) Application of Spectroscopy of Organic Compounds : J.R.Dyer : Prentice Hall.
64) Essentials of Molecular Photochemistry : A.Gibbert and J.Baggott : Blackwell Sci.Pubsh.
65) Organic Photochemistry : J.Coxan and B.Halton Cambridge, Uni.Press.
66) Principles of Bio-Inorganic Chemistry : S.J.Lippard and J.M.Berg (Uni.Sci.Books)
67) Inorganic Biochemistry Vol.I and II : G.L.Eicheorn Elsevier.
68) Vogel's Text Book of Quantitative Analysis : Reviseal : J.Basset, R.C.Denney, G.H.Jettery and J.Mendham; ELBS.
69) Synthesis and Characterization of Inorganic Compounds : W.L.Jolly, Prentice Hall.
70) Experiment and Technique in Organic Chemistry : D.Pasto, C.Johnson and M.Miller : Prentice Hall.
71) Microscale and Microscale Organic Experiments : K.L.Williamson, B.C.Heath.
72) Systematic Qualitative Organic Analysis : K.H.Middleton and Adward Arnold.
73) Handbook of Organic Analysis : Qualitative and Quantitative : H.Clarke, Adward Arnold.
74) Vogels Text of Practical Organic Chemistry : A.R.Tatchell, John Wiley.
75) Practical Physical Chemistry : A.M.James, and F.E.Prechard, Longman.
76) Findley's Practical Physical Chemistry : B.P.Levitt, Longman.
77) Experimental Physical Chemistry : R.C.Dass and B.Behra : TAta McGraw Hill.
78) Solid State Chemistry and Its applications : A.R.Best, Plennum.
79) Solid State Chemistry : D.K.Chakravarthy : New Age International.
List of equipments/appratus required for the
M.Sc. Chemistry Practicals.
1. Conductivity meter 03 nos./batch
2. pH meter 03 nos./batch
3. Potentiometer 03nos./batch
4. Polariometer 02 nos./batch
5. Centrifuge machine 02 nos./batch
6. Vaccum Pump 01 no./batch
7. Hot air oven 01 no./batch
8. Blower hot & cold 03 nos./batch
9. Stop watch 10 nos./batch
10. Weight box con.100 gm. 10 nos./batch
11. Analytical double pan balance 10 nos./batch
12. One pan electrical balance 10 nos./batch
13. Tripple beam balance 02 nos./batch
14. Melting point apparatus 02 nos./batch
15. Spectro photometer 02 nos./batch
16. Water still 01 no./lab
17. Colorimeter 02 nos./batch
18. Thermostate 01 no./batch
19. Electrodes platinum 03 nos./batch
Silver 03 nos./batch
Glass 03 nos./batch
Reference 03 nos./batch
20. Heating mentle 02 nos./batch
21. Glass double distillation unit 01 no./lab
22. Flamed Photometer 01 no./batch
23. LCR meter 01 no./lab
24. Polarpgraph with recorder 01 no./lab
25. U.V.visible spectrophotometer 1 no./lab
26. Standard cell 02 nos./batch
27. Muffle furnace 01 no./lab
28. D.C.Voltmeter 01 no./lab
29. Infrared lamp 05 nos./lab
30. Refrigerator 01 no./lab
31. Magnetic stirrer 2 ml, 5 ml. 02 nos./batch
32. Dimmer state 01 no./lab
33. Abbe's refractometer 01 no./batch
34. Sodium lamp for polarimeter 02 nos./batch
35. T.L.C. Kit 01 no./lab
36. Calorimeter 01 no./lab
37. Bomb Calorimeter 02 nos./batch
38. BOD analyser 01 no./lab
39. Water analysis kit 01 no./lab
40. Computer-386/486 01 no./lab
41. U.V.Lamp 02 no./lab
42. Ice making machine 01 no./lab
43. LCR bridge 01 no./lab
44. HPLC 01 no./lab
45. Deioniser 01 no./lab
46. Ion exchange column's 04 no./lab
47. Turbidity meter 01 no./lab
48. Optical densitometer 01 no./lab
49. Orsat apparatus (gas analysis) 01 no./lab
50. Interferometer (ultrasound) 01 no./batch
51. Youy's balance 01 no./lab
52. Hydraulic press 01 no./lab
53. Shaking machine 01 no./lab
54. G.M.Counter 01 no./lab
55. Electrophorasis apparatus 01 no./lab
56. Karl-Fisher Titration apparatus 01 no./lab
57. Power supply (regulator) 01 no./batch
58. Regulated furnace 01 no./lab
59. Thermocouple 01 no./lab
60. Vaccum oven 01 no./lab
61. Top pan balance 01 no./lab
List of glasswares (main) for M.Sc. Chemistry Practicals
1. Soxhlet set 02 nos./batch
2. Kjeldahl's apparatus set 02 nos./batch
(for Nitrogen element estimation)
3. Distillation unit 04 nos./batch
4. Separating funnel 10 no./batch
5. Steam distillation unit 02 nos./batch
6. Vaccum desicator 01 no./batch
7. Paper chromatography chamber 03 nos./batch
8. Silica crucibles 20 nos./batch
9. Sintered glass crucibles g4/g5 20 nos./batch
10. Spot test plates 10 nos./batch
11. Wash bottles 10 nos./batch
12. Density bottles 10 nos./batch
13. Viscometer 10 nos./batch
14. Kipp's apparatus 10 nos./batch
15. Beakers, capacity :50 ml, 100 ml, 250 ml, 400 ml, 500 ml, 1000ml,
16. Conical flask : 100 ml, 250 ml.
17. Burettes with stop cock, capacity : 2ml, 5 ml, 10ml, 25 ml.
18. Lambda pipette 02 nos./batch
19. Voumetric flasks, capacity : 10 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, 100 ml, 250 ml, 500 ml, 1000ml.
20. Measuring cylinder, capacity : 10 ml, 25 ml, 50 ml, 100 ml, 500 ml, 1000 ml
21. Pipette, capacity : 1 ml, 2 ml, 5 ml, 10 ml, 25 ml.
22. Stalagnometer 10 nos./batch
23. Thermometer (b-24) 0 to 3600C (quick fit) 05 nos./batch
24. Water suction pump (glass) 05 nos./batch
25. Filtration flasks with buckner funnels 50 ml 10 nos./batch
100ml 10 nos./batch
250ml 10 nos./batch
500ml 10 nos./batch
26. Quick fit stand joints b-14, b-19, b24
27. China dishes 10 nos./batch
28. Dessicators 10 nos./batch
29. Thiel's tube for melting point 05 nos./batch
30. Quick fit water condensors b-19, b-24 10 nos./batch
31. Quick fit flasks, Capacity 50 ml, 100 ml,
250 ml, 500 ml, 1000 ml. 10 nos./batch