M.E. (PART-TIME)                                                                                                                                                      Prospectus No.071753



SANT GADGE BABA  Amravati University



 (FACULTY OF Engineering & technology)





Prescribed for

Post Graduate Three Year Degree Course

Master of Engineering


I to III Year Examinations

2006 - 2007 & Onwards


                   Branches     :    1)      Civil (Geotechnical Engineering)

                                               2)      Electrical Power System

                                               3)      Thermal Power Engineering

                                               4)      Environmental Engineering

                                               5)      Computer Science & Engineering

                                               6)      Production Technology & Management

                                               7)      Digital Electronics



Visit us at www.amtuni.com



                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Price Rs.      /-




                                                                                                                                                                                                        PUBLISHED BY



                                                                                                                                                                                                        Sant Gadge Baba

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Amravati University,

                                                                                                                                                                                                        Amravati 444  602



Ó     “No part of this prospectus can be reprinted or published without specific permission of Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University. 


SANT GADGE BABA amravati  university  amravati

special note for information of the students


(1)        Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, it is notified for general information and guidance of all concerned that a person, who has passed the qualifying examination and is eligible for  admission only to the corresponding next higher examination as an ex-student or an external candidate, shall be examined in accordance with the syllabus of such next higher examination  in force at the time of such examination in such subjects papers or combination of papers in which students from University Departments or Colleges are to be examined by the University.


(2)        Be it known to all the students desirous to take examination/s for which this prospectus has been prescribed should, if found necessary for any other information regarding examinations  etc., refer the University Ordinances Booklet the various conditions/provisions pertaining to examination as prescribed in the following Ordinances.


Ordinance No. 1                      :            Enrolment of Students.

Ordinance No. 2                      :            Admission of Students

Ordinance No. 4                      :            National cadet corps

Ordinance No. 6                      :            Examinations in General (relevant extracts)

Ordinance No. 18/2001          :            An Ordinance to provide grace marks for passing in a Head of passing and Improvement of Division (Higher Class) and getting Distinction in the subject and condonation of defficiency of marks in a subject in all the faculties prescribed by the statute NO.18, Ordinance 2001.

Ordinance No. 9                      :            Conduct of Examinations (relevant extracts)

Ordinance No. 10                    :            Providing for Exemptions and Compartments

Ordinance No. 19                    :            Admission of Candidates to Degrees.

Ordinance No. 109                  :            Recording of a change of name of a University student in the records of the University.

Ordinance No. 138                  :            For improvement of Division/Grade.

Ordinance No.19/2001           :            An Ordinance for Central Assessment Programme, Scheme of  Evaluation and Moderation of answerbooks and preparation of results of the examinations, conducted by the University, Ordinance 2001.




                                                                                                                                                                          Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University


pattern of question paper on the unit system


             The pattern of question paper as per unit system will be broadly based on the following pattern.


             (1)     Syllabus has been divided into units equal to the number of question to be answered in the paper. On each unit there will be a question either a long answer type or a short answer type.

             (2)     Number of question will be in accordance with the unit prescribed in the syllabi for each paper i.e. there will be one question on each unit.

             (3)     For every question long answer type or short answer type there will be an alternative choice from the same unit. However, there will be no internal choice in a question.

             (4)     Division of marks between long answer and short answer type question will be in the ratio of 40 and 60.

             (5)     Each short answer type question shall Contain 4  to 8 short sub question with no internal choice.



prescribed for

master of engineering

civil engineering

(geotechnical engineering)

part time


semester : first


1 SPCGE 1                                                                              advanced soil mechanics


          Concepts of stress, strain, principal stresses and strains, invariats octahedral stresses and strains.

          Stress-strain relations, special matrices, plane stress, plane strain problems, stresses and displacements in elastic soil mass. Anistropy governing differential equations for flow through porous media in cartisian co-ordinate and polar co-ordinates system for Laplace equations, steady state I-D flow in cartisian and polar co-ordinate system. Effective stress principles, stress paths in various drainage conditions.


          Development of geological model and equations of state for soils, Distribution of contact pressures for different types of soils under various loading conditions.

          Yield criteria and various theories of failure, limiting equilibrium stability of soil slopes, infinite solpe in O and c-O soils subjected to seepage.

          Earth pressure theories, different theories, struted excavations stability of bottom of excavation and theory of arching, limiting equilibrium equations, etc.

List of Practicals/Assignments :-

1)       Determination of Earth pressure on retaining walls by analytical & graphical methods.

2)       Determination of stability of slopes (Swedish circle & friction circle method)

3)       Box shear test on gravel samples.

4)       Triaxial tests on soil for drained & undrained conditions.

5)       Triaxial test on rock samples.

6)       Engg. properties of Geosynthetics & standards.

7)       Determination of tensile strength of Geotextiles.

8)       Determination of pull-out resistance of Geosynthetics.

9)       Determination of % elongation of Geosynthetics.

10)     Box shear test on Geotextile.

books recommended :-

1)       Harr M.E.           : Foundations of Theoretical Soil Mechanics.

2)       Scott R.F.          : Principles of Soil Mechanics.

3)       Singh Alam       : Soil Mechanics.

1 SpCGE 2                                                                                foundation engineering


          Planning of sub soil exploration for major civil engineering projects, sampling methods, criteria for spacing of bores, depth of bore, interpretation of field and laboratory data.

          Field method : SPT, Plate Load Test, Pile Load Test, Vane Shear Test, extraposation of tests data for actual foundations. Geophysical methods.

          Mat or Raft foundations : design of G Rigid mats, modulus of subgrade reaction, effect of depth on subgrade reaction, criteria for Rigid/Flexible raft mat analysis using the modulus of sub grade reaction using finite difference method.


          Beams of elastic approach diff. equation of elastic curve, soil modulus and mathematical solutions, solutions for laterally loaded piles with soil modulus assumed constant, concept of Meyerhop and Ranjan’s method, Reese and Matlock’s method, fixity of pile heads, battered piles under lateral load-various methods, Batter pilegroup under inclined Loads-Culmann’s method, Vetter’s method; Hrennikoffis method, Brill approach P-V curves etc., anchored bulk heads-design methods, free and fixed earth support. Well foundation-different elements loadings, depth of well foundation. Sinking stresses, bearing capacity analysis, conditions for stability of well, lateral stability of well, different methods of analysis-Terzaghi, Pender, Banerjee and Gangopadhyay’s IRC method, Well sinking, tills and shifts, stability for analysis for floating causson.

          Micro-pile-design construction criteria - various elements and field conditions, design of Pile-caps.

List of Practicals/Assignments :-

1)       Planning of sub-soil exploration for a  Civil Engineering project.

2)       Standard Penetration Test.

3)       North Dacota Test.

4)       Plate Load Test.

5)       Field Vane Shear Test.

6)       Geophysical methods-Electrical resistivity method & sounding test.

7)       Design of Raft foundation.

8)       Design of Well foundation.

9)       Design of anchored bulkheads.

10)     Design of micro piles & pile head.     

books recommended :

1)       Bowles J.E. : Foundation Analysis and Design

2)       Samsher Prakash, Gopal Rajan : Analysis and Design of Foundations and Retaining.and Swami Soran                  

3)       Davis and Poulus : Design and Analysis of Laterally Loaded Piles.

4)       Kaniraj S.R.: Design Aids in Soil Mechanics and Foundations.


semester : second


2SPCGE1                                                                                     GROUND IMPROVEMENT




        Clay mineralogy - Atomic bonds, Clay minerals. Clay-water relations, Electrical effects, cation exchange, Clay mineral identification

          Soil stabilization – Principle, Different methods of soil stabilization

          Granular stabilization

          Chemical stabilisation - Principle, Different methods, Different chemicals used, Engineering properties and behavior of chemically stabilized soils.

          Cement stabilisation - Types, Mechanism, Properties, Factors influencing, Applications, Laboratory testing for stabilized soil

          Lime stabilisation - Soil-lime reaction, Types and properties, Effectiveness of lime treatment, Mixture design

          Ash and slag stabilisation - Fly-ash stabilisation

          Bituminous stabilisation - Classification, mechanism, Laboratory testing

          Thermal and electro kinetic stabilisation – Thermal, Heating and freezing, Electro-osmosis.

          Construction methods for stabilized soils.


          Deep Compaction of Granular soil – Introduction, Vibration methods – Vibration methods,  Vibro compaction, Blasting, Displacement methods.

          Stone-gravel and sand column, Design of stone columns, Compaction piles, Dynamic consolidation, Preloading method.

          Stabilisation of soft soil – Lime columns – Bearing capacity, Principle, Bearing capacity of lime group, Total and differential settlement, Application of lime column method, Quality control methods, Design of lime column foundations. Sand drains, Granular trench stabilisation

          Grouting – Grouting techniques – Permeation grouting, Hydro facture grouting, Compaction grouting, Jet grouting, Types of grouts, Design of soil grouting program, Grouting equipment, Quality control and testing.

Practical Contents :

                Any eight of following study experiments / assignments

1.     Compressive strength test of moulded cylinder of stabilized soil

2.     Moisture-density relation of stabilized soil

3.     Wetting and drying test of compacted stabilized soil

4.     Freezing and thawing test of compacted stabilized soil

5.     Design of stone column

6.     Design of lime column

7.     Assignment on preloading method of stabilisation

8.     Assignment on design of sand drains for stabilisation.

9.     Case histories of grouting


References :

1.     B.M. Das - Principle of Foundation Design

2.     Hsai-yang Fang  -Foundation Engineering Handbook 

3.     K.B. Woods, D.S. Berry and W.H. Goetz  - Highway Engineering Handbook 


2SPCGE2                                                                SOIL DYNAMICS AND MACHINE FOUNDATION


          Theory  of vibrations – Introduction to dynamic loading, Vibratory motions, Harmonic motion, Single degree of freedom system- free and forced vibrations, damped and un-damped vibrations, Systems with two degree of freedom, Un-damped dynamic vibration absorbers.


          Wave propagation- vibrations in rod (infinite and finite) - Longitudinal and torsional vibrations, Wave propagation in an infinite homogeneous isotropic elastic medium, Wave propagation in elastic half space.


          Dynamic soil properties- different laboratory tests and field tests, Factors affecting the modulus of soil, Dynamic bearing capacity of shallow foundation, Dynamic analysis- Triandafilidis’s solution, Wallace’s solution, Chummar’s solution.



          Types of machine foundations, General requirements of machine foundation, Design criteria.


          Foundations of reciprocating machines- modes of vibrations, Linear elastic weightless spring method, elastic half space method, Effect of footing shape on vibration response, Dynamic response of embedded block foundation.


          Foundation of impact type machines- dynamic procedure for hammer foundations, Foundation of rotary machine – design criteria, Two dimensional analysis - Resonant method, Amplitude method and combined method.


          Vibration isolation- methods of isolation in machine foundations, Isolating materials and their properties

          Constructional details of machine foundations


Practical Contents :

                Any eight of following study experiments / assignments

1.     Resonant column test 

2.     Ultrasonic pulse test

3.     Cyclic simple shear test

4.     Cyclic torsional simple shear test

5.     Cyclic triaxial compression test

6.     Seismic bore hole test

7.     Vertical block resonant test

8.     Horizontal block resonant test

9.     Cyclic plate load test

10.   Design of machine foundation for reciprocating machine

11.   Design of machine foundation for impact machine

12.   Design of vibration isolators for machine foundation


References :

1.     Richart and Woods  - Vibrations of Soils and Foundation 

2.     Srinivasulu and Vaidynanathan  - Handbook of Machine Foundation 

3.     Swami Saran  - Soil Dynamic and Machine Foundation 


semester : third

3SPCGE1                                                                        EARTHN DAM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN



        Types of earthen dams – based on construction materials, Methods of construction, and foundation, Requirements of good dam site, Causes of failure, Design criteria for safe design, Preliminary section, Typical cross sections of earthen dams.


        Seepage through earthen dam – Laplace Equation, Pheratic line and its determination for homogeneous and non-homogeneous sections under different conditions, Flow net for seepage, Various methods for constructing flow net, Seepage analysis for uniform and zoned sections, Methods of Seepage control through embankment and foundation of earthen dam, Design of impermeable blanket.


        Drainage of Earthen dam – Provision of filters, Design of filter, Surface protections, Relief wells.



        Stability analysis – Construction pore pressure and factors affecting it, Stability of slopes during construction, Pore pressure measurement – Bishop’s method, Hilf’s method, Approximate method.


        Stability of upstream and downstream slopes – Method of slices, Bishop’s method, Effective stress analysis, Stability during steady seepage and sudden drawdown


        Stability of foundation against shear.


        Stability analysis considering earthquake forces, Design considerations for earth dam in Seismic region..


        Embankment construction procedure – Equipment, Methods of quality control, Instrumentation system for measurement of various parameters

Case studies of dam failure


        Rock fill dams – Types, Characteristics, Material, foundation, design of dam section, Construction.


Practical Contents :

                Any eight of following study experiments / assignments

1.     Design of earthen dam ( Homogeneous section )

2.     Field study of earthen dam

3.     Construction of flow net for different condition of flow through body of dam and its foundation

4.     Seepage analysis of earthen dam by flow net

5.     Slope stability analysis of earthen dam

6.     Design of impervious blanket

7.     Design of filter for drainage of earthen dam

8.     Seismic stability of earthen dam

9.     Design of rock fill dam


References :


1.     Bharat Singh and H.D. Sharma  -Earth and Rock fill dam 

2.     Bharat Singh and Varshney R.S. – engineering for Embankment dams, Oxford and IBH Publisher Co.

3.     J.L. Sherard et al  -Earth and Earth-rock dams , John Wiley and sons.

4.     G.F. Sowers  - Earth and Rock fill dam Engineering

5.     U.S.B.R.- Design of small Dams 


3SPCGE2                                                                                       ROCK MECHANICS



        Introduction to Rock Mechanics and its field applications, Identification of common rocks, Physical and mechanical characteristics of rock material, Field and laboratory testing of rocks, Classification of rock masses for engineering purpose.


        Rock excavation and reinforcement – Drilling, Blasting, Braking  and cutting, Rock bolting, Rock anchors, Bolted and anchor supports, Rock grouting -  Types of treatment, grouting material, grouting methods, Grouting design and layout


        Stresses in rock mass – Types of stresses, in-situ stress determination methods – Over coning, Flat jack method, Hydraulic fracturing, Structural Geology and Ground stresses, Stresses around underground opening, stresses in tunnels and shafts, Strains and deformations around circular opening, Rheology


        Rock strength and Deformability - Modes of rock failure, Stress-strain behavior in compression, Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria, Hook-Brown criteria, Griffth’s crack theory, Empirical criteria for failure, Effect of size on strength, Anisotropic rocks, Plane of weakness in Rocks, Joint orientation and roughness, Deformability of rocks – Elastic and non-elastic behavior, influence of time on rock deformation, viscous behavior and creep.



        Brittle failure of Rocks – Introduction, Fracture initiation, Fracture propagation, Rock fracture in compression, Rupture criteria for brittle rock, Factors affecting rupture behavior of rock.


        Ultimate behavior of rock structures – Plasticity and resistance of rock structure, Principle of limit equilibrium method, analysis of general slip surfaces, Approximate methods for two dimensional limit equilibrium analysis, Structural discontinuities in rock masses and progressive failure, Water pressure and resistance of rock structures.


        Rock foundations - Allowable bearing pressures, Stress and deflection in rock under footing, Failure mechanisms, Subsiding and swelling rocks, Base heave and remedies, foundation anchoring


        Rock slopes – Modes of failure, Factors affecting, Analysis of slopes


        Underground opening - Opening in competent rock, horizontally layered rocks and rock with inclined layers, Plastic behavior around tunnels, time dependent behavior of tunnels, underground opening in blocky rocks- Block theory, Review of design methods of tunnels – Empirical and semi-empirical methods, Support and stabilisation


Practical Content :

               Minimum eight experiments / assignments of the following:

      1.      Brazilian tensile strength test

      2.      Point load strength test

      3.      Slake durability test

      4.      Flat jack test

      5.      Unconfined compression test

      6.      Triaxial compression test

      7.      Large box direct shear test

      8.      Field shear test

      9.      Hydraulic fracturing test

      10.    Design and testing of Rock Bolt

      11.    Tunnel Jacking test


References :

1.     R.E. Goodman – Rock Mechanics , John Wiley and Sons

2.     G. Hergel – Stresses in Rocks – A.A. Balkema Publishers

3.     J.A. Franklin and M.B. Dusseault – Rock Engineering McGraw Hill International Editions

4.     J.A. Franklin and M.B. Dusseault – Rock Engineering  Applications - McGraw Hill Inc.

5.     K.G. Stagg and O.C. Zienkiewicz – Rock Mechanics in Engineering Practice  -John Wiley and Sons

6.     Koerner R.M. – Construction and Geotechnical Methods in Foundation Engineering, McGraw Hill Book company.




semester : fourth

 4SPCGE1                                                                       ENGINEERING WITH GEOSYNTHETICS



        Overview of Geosynthetics materials, Types of geosynthetics, Functions, Applications of geosynthetics in engineering field

        Geotextiles – Types, Physical, Mechanical, Hydraulic, Constructability and durability properties, Test methods, Requirements of geotextiles as reinforcement, Applications of geotextiles.


        Geogrids - Physical and mechanical properties, Test methods, Geogrid-soil interaction.


        Geomembranes – Physical, Chemical, and Mechanical properties, Current uses


        Erosion control – Wind erosion, Rain water erosion, Use of geotextile, Geotextile beneath rock rip-rap, Geotextile filters – Design criteria, Construction criteria, Erosion control measures using Geogrids,  Erosion control mattresses, Geotextile silt fences for erosion control.




        Bearing capacity improvement – Soil mass reinforcement geometry, Mechanism, Modes of failure (Binquet and Lee theory), Foundation on soil with geotextile reinforcement, Design procedure.


        Pavement construction using Geotextile – Mode of action, design methods, Construction methods.


        Reinforced retaining walls – Geotextile reinforced walls – Construction procedure, Analysis, Design, Design of gabion walls using Geotextile, Geogrid soil walls – Construction, Design


        Filtration and drainage using geotextile – Geotextile chimney drains and their design.


        Containment systems using geomembarne – Liquid containment, Solid containment.


        Stabilisation using geogrid mattresses – Principle, Design, Construction


References :

1.           G. V. Rao and Raju  - “Engineering with Geosynthetics”  -  G.V.S.S., Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi

2.           R. M. Koerner  and Welsh J.P. - “Construction and Geotechnical Engineering using Synthetic Fabrics” -  John Willey and Sons

3.           B. M. Das – “Principle of Foundation Design”

4.           R. M. Koerner – Construction and Geotechnical Methods in Foundation engineering – McGraw Hill Book Company. 


4SPCGE2                                                                                                   elective-I                    





        Identification, Characterization and regulatory requirements for disposal of hazardous, non-hazardous and domestic waste


        Sources and effects of subsurface contamination, Physical, Chemical and biological characteristics of solid waste, Soil-waste interaction


        Cation exchange reactions and effect of pollutants on soil properties


        Erodability of soil in relation to moisture content, Containment transport, Laboratory and field evaluation of permeability, Factors affecting, Design of dewatering.


        Waste management – Recycling, Composting,  Insiration, and various disposal methods, Site selection, Leachet collection and detection system




        Types of land fills – Silting criteria, Waste containment principle, Types of barrier materials, Planning and design aspects relating to waste disposal in landfills


        Landfills – Ash ponds and Tailing ponds and in rocks, Environmental monitoring around landfills – Detection, Control and remediation of subsurface containment, Engineering properties and geotechnical reuse of waste, Demolition of waste etc., Reclamation of old waste dumps, Regulation, Case studies


        Single and double lined landfill, Applications of Geosynthetics in waste disposal design, Landfill construction, Construction quality control and performance monitoring.


References :


1.     R. N. Fong – Geoenvironmental Engineering – Contaminated soil, Pollutant Fate and Mitigations – CRC

2.     A.O.M. Mohamad – Geoenvironmental engineering – Elsevier Publications

3.     Mohamad and Warkentin – Principles of Containment Transport in Soils – Elsevier Publications

4.     R.K. Shrivastawa – Environment Geotechnique, ISRMTT, New Delhi.


4SPCGE2                                                                                                   elective-I                                    


        SECTION A


        Design loads and forces on offshore structures – Wind forces, Wave forces, Current forces, Live loads, Impact, Nature and magnitude of loads on foundation of offshore structures, Criteria of foundation design in offshore environment.


        Gravity platforms – General features, Suitability, Features of foundation, Geotechnical design of gravity platforms – General aspects, Foundation stability, Foundation failure modes,, Bearing capacity and settlement under dynamic loads, Immediate and long term behavior.


        Platforms – Catwalks, Heliports, Tender platform, Template platform, Template platforms, Tower type template platform, Production platform, Quarter platforms, Flare tower – Fabrication and installation


        Manifold platforms – General features, Suitability, Constructional details


        Tower platform – General features, Suitability, Caissons walls, and skirts, Caissons, Cell dome, Shafts 




        Floating structures – Tension leg platforms

        Deck structures – Design loads

        Construction and installation of offshore structures

        Foundation of offshore structures – Soil investigation techniques

        Pile foundations for offshore structures – Static analysis of axially loaded offshore pile, Analysis of pile and pile group under dynamic loads, Lateral pile load analysis, Prediction of pile behavior, Techniques of offshore piling for various structures, Pile behavior under cyclic lateral load, Development of p-y curves.


References :


1.     W.J. Graff – Introduction to Offshore structures, Gulf Publishing Company.

2.     Thomas Teleford Ltd. London : Design of Offshore structures -  Proceedings on Conference on development in the design and construction of offshore structures , 1983 



4SPCGE2                                                                          (3) SOIL STRUCTURE INTERACTION



          Introduction to Soil-Foundation interaction - Idealized soil behavior, Foundation behavior, interface behavior.


          Idealised soil response model for analysis of soil foundation interaction – Elastic models of soil behaviour -  The Winklers model, Elastic continuum models, Two-parameter  elastic models, Elastic plastic and time dependent behaviour of soil masses – elastic-plastic behaviour, time dependent behaviour


          Plane-strain analysis of an infinite plate and an infinitely long beam – Bernoulli’s-Euler beam theory and its modifications, Plain strain analysis of the finite plate problem, Reissner’s method of analysis of the infinite plate problem, Deflection of an infinite plate on a Winkler medium.



          The analysis of beams of finite length – Finite beams on a Winkler medium, Finite beams on a two-parameter elastic medium, Finite beams on an elastic solid medium, approximate methods, Classification of finite beams in relation to their stiffness


          Analysis of finite plate – Axisymmetric loading of a circular plate, Analysis of rigid circular plate, analysis of rectangular plate, Plate resting on an elastic half space – Approximate method of analysis


          Experimental investigation and field studies – Stress measurement beneath rigid footings, flexible beam and raft foundation


          Limit analysis of pile groups with lateral soil reaction.


          Seismic design provisions for soil structure interaction


References :

1.       Selvadurai A. P. S. – Elastic Analysis of oil Foundation Interaction, Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company.



4SPCGE3                                                                (1) APPLICATIONS OF FEM IN GEOTECHNICAL




        Standard discrete system, Stiffness matrices, Assembly and analysis of a structure, Boundary conditions


        Direct formulation, Displacement approach as a minimization of total potential energy, Relation to Rayleigh-Ritz method, Galerkin’s method, Convergence criteria, Non-confirming elements and Patch test


        Plane stress and plain strain analysis – Element characterization and some applications, Axi-symmetric stress analysis - Element characterization and some applications, Element shape functions – 2-D elements, Pascal triangle


        Rectangular element family, Lagrange family, Serendipity family, Internal nodes and node-less variables, Triangular element family – area co-ordinates, shape functions, Constant strain triangles, 1-D and 3-D elements – Rectangular prism, Tetrahedral elements


        Interface elements, Hierarchical shape functions, co-ordinate transformations, Generation of finite element meshes by mapping



        Computer programming for FEM – Data input module, Flow chart, Subroutines for assemble, Shape functions, Mesh generation, Stiffness matrix, Solution of simultaneous linear algebraic equation.


        Analysis of field Geotechnical Problems by Finite element solutions - Beam on elastic foundation, Mat foundation, Ring foundation, Pile foundation, Braced excavations, Sheet pile walls, Stability of slopes, Stress and deformations in embankments, Seepage analysis, 1-D consolidation.


References      :


1.     C. S. Desai and J. F. Abel – Introduction to Finite Element Method – Sarita Prakashan, Delhi.

2.     Reddy – Introduction to Finite Element Method – McGraw Hill Book company

3.     T.P. Chandrupatla and A. D. Belegundu - Introduction to Finite Elements in Engineering – Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Ltd

4.     O.C. Zienkiewicz - The Finite element method – Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.

5.     Hinton E. and D. R. J. Owen - An introduction to Finite Element Computation, Swansea, Great Briton Pinneridge Press

6.     Hinton E. and D. R. J. Owen  - Finite Element Programming, London Academic 1977

7.     C.S. Krishnamurthy - Finite Element analysis Theory and programming

8.     J.E. Bowles - Foundation Analysis and Design, McGraw Hill book Company



4SPCGE3                                                             (2)  GEOTECHNICAL EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING




        Introduction to Earthquake – Earthquake elements, Sources of earthquake, Mechanics of tectonic earthquake.


        Basic earthquake principles – Focus and epicenter, Seismic waves – Origin, Wave types, Propagation, Velocity, Characteristics


        Common earthquake effects – Ground motion, Detecting and recording – Seismographs, Earthquake strength measurement, Seismic risk maps, Attenuation, Amplification, Influencing factors, Ground amplification factors.


        Recurrence and forecasting of earthquake – Statistical analysis and recurrence equation, Early warning indicators


        Earthquake structural damage – Surface effects on geological environment, Faulting, Fault activity, Fault displacement, Rupture length, Attenuation from fault, Seismicity maps and tectonic structure


        Soil behavior under cyclic strain - Soil reaction to dynamic loads, Cyclic shear related to earthquake, Characteristic shear modulus and damping ratio


        Liquefaction – Liquefaction phenomenon, Mechanism of liquefaction, Different laboratory tests – Dynamic triaxial test, Cyclic simple shear test, Standard curves and co-relations for liquefaction, Evaluation of zones of liquefaction in field, Vibration table studies, Field blast studies, Factors affecting liquefaction, Evaluation of liquefaction potential, Damage susceptibility, Predicting the liquefaction potential, Anti-liquefaction measures.


        Bearing capacity analysis for earthquake


        Earthquake induced settlement


        Slope stability analyses for earthquake – Analytical methods of dynamic analysis for earth dam and embankments


        Stability of earthen dam during earthquake – Types of damage, Response analysis of embankment dams – visco-elastic response analysis, Jai Krisna approach, Seed and Martin approach, Development of deformation analysis – Goodman and Seed approach, Seed approach to non-free-draining and cohesive soils, Design recommendations and precautions


        Retaining wall analysis for earthquake


        Site improvement methods – Grading and other soil improvement methods, Foundation alternatives to mitigate earthquake effects


References :

1.     Steven L. Kramer – Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering , Prentice Hall

2.     Robert W. Day – Geotechnical earthquake Engineering Handbook – McGraw Hill Professionals

3.     Swamy Saran – Soil Dynamic and Machine Foundations

4.     Roy E. Hunt – Geotechnical Engineering Investigation Manual – McGraw Hill Book Company

5.     Bharat Singh and R.S. Varshney – Engineering for Embankment Dams – Oxford and IBH Publishing Co-op. Pvt. Ltd.



4SPCGE3                                                                            (3) CONSTRUCTION METHODS IN



          Pile foundation - Pile driving equipment – Hammer, Pile drivers and other accessory equipment, Construction of precast and cast-in-situ piles 

          Cofferdams - Sheet piling in cofferdams – Setting and driving, Length and penetration, splicing, Extraction, Scaling to existing structures, Bracing systems – Circular cofferdams, Rectangular cofferdams, Setting, Bracing, Removing bracing, Excavation – Pre-dredging, Excavation inside cofferdams

          Pile driving within the cofferdam – Bottom seal – Resistance to uplift, Seal construction by bucket method, Seal construction by Tremic method, Seal construction by grout intrusion method, Dewatering – Pumping, other dewatering methods, Cofferdam difficulties – Cofferdam destroyed by surge, Cofferdam bottom blows, Improper sheet pile sections and bracing, Sheet pile stopped by boulders, Buckling of long struts, Improper procedure in unstable soil, Scour and poor Tremic-concrete procedures, problems with Tremic.Box Caissons – General considerations, Site and foundation preparation, fabrication, Launching and Towing, Setting, Concreting




          Open Caissons – General considerations, Cutting edges, Setting, Construction of steining, sinking, Tipping and sliding, completing and installation, Construction of Pneumatic Caissons


          Rock excavation – Evaluation and planning, Drilling equipment, Blast design – Criteria for design, Selection of explosive, Blast hole design, Blasting round design, Over break Control – Line drilling, Pre-splitting, Trim blasting, Loading and hauling equipment


          Tunneling in solid rocks – Means of excavation in solid rocks, Full-face tunneling without support, Full-face tunneling with support


          Tunneling in moderately firm rocks and ground – Classical or mining method, Single stage mining method, Multistage classical method of tunneling, Sinking caisson method, Shield tunneling method, tunneling by Tunnel boring machines, Types of TBM


References :


1.       John . Havers and Frank W. Stubbs – Handbook of Heavy Construction, McGraw Hill Book company

2.       Karoly Szechy, Akademaiai, Kiado Budapest – The Art of Tunneling

3.       Rolt Hammond – Modern Foundation Methods.


semester : fifth & sixth

5 SPCGE 1  & 6 SPCGE 1                                                    SEMINAR AND DISSERATION


A dissertation on recent trends in Geotechnical Engineering to be submitted.

Seminar shall be delivered on the dissertation submitted.

Marks shall be based on Seminar and Viva-Voce on disseratation.







electrical engineering

(electrical power system ) examination (part time)

semester : first


1 seps 1                                                                        power system optimization


1)         Introduction to optimization and classical optimization techniques

2)         Linear Programming :

             Standard form, geometry of LPP, Simplex Method pf solving LPP, revised simplex method, duality, decomposition principle, and transportation problem.

3)         Non-Linear Problem (NLP) :

             One dimensional methods, Elimination methods, Interpolation methods

4)         Non-Linear Programming(NLP):

             Unconstrained optimization techniques-Direct search and Descent methods, constrained optimization techniques, direct and indirect methods


5)         Dynamic Programming:

             Multistage decision processes, concept of sub-optimization and principle of optimality, conversion of final value problem into an initial value problem.

6)         CPM and PERT

7)         Genetic Algorithm:

             Introduction to genetic Algorithm, working principle, coding of variables, fitness function. GA operators; Similarities and differences between Gas and traditional methods; Unconstrained and constrained optimization using Genetic Algorithm, real coded gas, Advanced Gas, global optimization using GA.

8)         Applications to Power system:

             Economic Load Dispatch in thermal and Hudro-thermal system using GA and classical optimization techniques, Unit commitment problem, reactive power optimization. optimal power flow, LPP and NLP techniques to Optimal flow problems.


1.       "Optimization - Theory and Applications", S.S.Rao, Wiley-Eastern Limited

2.       "Introduction of Linear and Non-Linear Programming ", David G. Luenberger, Wesley Publishing Company

3.       "Computational methods in Optimization ", Polak, Academic Press

4.       "Optimization Theory with Applications" Pierre D.A., Wiley Publications

5.       "Optimization for Engineering Design: Algorithms and Examples", Kalyanmoy deb, PHI Publication

6.       "Genetic Algorithm in Search Optimization and Machine Learning ", D.E. Goldberg, Addision-Wesley Publication, 1989

7.       "Advanced Power System Analysis and Dynamics " L.P. Singh, Wiley Eastern Limited.

8.       "Power System Analysis ", Hadi Saadat, TMH Publication.

9.       " Electrical Energy System : An Introduction ". Olle I.Elewgerd, TMH Publication, New Delhi.


1 SEPS 2                                                          generation planning and load dispatch

section - A

Generation-    Fossil fules, Hydropower and Nuclear power generation systems. Chronological Load Curves, Power duration curve, Integrated duration curve, Hydrography, Flow duration curve, Mass curve for Hydro Power generations. Co-ordination of steam, Hydro and Nuclear power stations. Optimum Generation allocation-Line losses neglected and including the effect of transmission losses for thermal power generations. Long range and short range Hydro generation scheduling. The short term and long term Hydro-thermal scheduling of generation.

                         Load Forecasting & Generation Planning - Classification of loads -Load forecasting methodology-Energy forecasting-peak demand forecasting-Weather sensitive and Non-weather sensitive forecasting - Total forcast - Annual   and Monthly peak demand forecast.


                         Generation system cost analysis:

                         Cost analysis -capacity cost, production cost.

                         Production analysis-production costing, production analysis involving nuclear unit, production analysis involving hydro unit.

                         Fuel inventories-energy transaction and off-peak energy utilization.

                         Generation System Reliability Analysis - probabilistic generating Unit-Model and Load model, effective load-Reliability analysis for isolated system-Interconnected system-Reliability analysis of interconnected system.

                         Load dispatch & System Communication - Consideration for centralized control of system operations. Requirements of the central load dispatch centre.

                         Telementry-Remote control and data transmission, etc.

                         Power system reforms, deregulation of electric utilities, energy management & conservation.

references :

             1)         Power System Planning - R.L. Sullivan, McGraw Hill.

             2)         Economic Control of Interconnected System -Kirchmayers, L.K.,John Wiley and Sons, New York.

             3)         Generation of Electrical Energy - B.R. Gupta, Euresia Publishing House Pvt., Ltd., New Delhi.

             4)         Power System Restructing and Deregulation - by Loi Lei Lai

             5)         Restructed Electrical Power  Systems - by Mohammad Shahidehopur, Muwaffaq Alomoush.

             6)         Privatization, Restructing, and Regulation of Network Utilities (Walras-Pareto Lectures) : by David M. Newbery.

             7)         Power to the People : Electric Power Deregulation : An Expose : Jack Duckworth

             8)         Understanding Electric Utilities and De-Regulation (Power Engineering) : by Lorrin Philipson, et al

             9)         Power Generation, Opearion and Control : A.J. Wood and B.F. Wollenberg:, John Wiley 1996

             10)       Understanding Electric Utilities and De-Regulation (Power Engineering) : by Lorrin Philipson, H. Lee Willis, Lorrion Philipson

             11)       The End of a Natural Monopoly : Deregulation and Competition in the Electric Power Industry : by P.Z.Grossman, D.H. Cole, P.Z. Grossman, D.H. Cole


1SEPS 3                                                           MICROPROCESSOR and microcontroller

section - a

                         Overview of Intel 8085 microprocessor.

                         8086 : Architecture, instruction including I/O instructions, bus timing diagram, interrupt structure, ISR minimum and maximum mode, Assembly Language Programming.

                         Hardware and Software debugging aids: 1 Pass and 2 Pass assemblers, cross assemplers, circuit emulators, simulators, linkers, loaders, compiler, cross compiler, logic analyzers.

                         Types of interfacing devices

Section B

          8051 Architecture : 8051 Microcontroller Hardware, Input/Output Pins, ports, and circuits, External Memory, Counter and Timers, Serial Data input/output, Interrupts

          Assembly language programming concepts : The mechanics of programming, The assembly language programming process, PAL instructions, Programming tools and techniques, Programming the 8051

          Moving Data : Addressing modes, external data moves, code memory read only data moves, push and pop -op codes, data exchanges

          Logical Operations : Byte level logical operations, bit level logical operations, rorate and swap operations

          Arithmetic Opearions : Flags, incrementing and decrementing, addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, decimal arithmetic

          Jumps and Call Instructions : The jump and call program range, jumps, calls and subroutines, interrupts and returns

          8051 Microcontroller Design : Microcontroller specification, microcontroller design, testing the design, timing subroutines, look up tables for the 8051, serial data transmission

          Applications : Keyboard, displays, pulse measurement, D/A and A/D conversion, multiple interrupts

          Serial Data Communication : Network Configuration, 8051 Data Communication

Books Recommended :

1.       Kenneth J.Ayala, The 8051  Micro Controller : Architecture, Programming, Penram International, Mumbai.

2.       Intel Embeded Micro Controller Data Book, Intel Corporation.

3.       D.V.Hall, Microprocessor and Digital Systems, ELBS Publication, London.

4.       B.P.Singh, Advance Microprocessors and Micro Controllers, New Age International, New Delhi.

5.       D.V.Hall, Microprocessors and Interfacing, Tata McGraw Hill Publication, New Delhi.

6.       Y.C.Liu, Gibson, Microcomputer Systems: the 8086/8088 Family, Architecture, Programming and Design, Prentice Hall of India Publications, New Delhi.

7.       Lance A. Leventhal, Introduction to Microprocessor, Software, Hardware and Programming.

8.       Ramesh S.Gaonkar, Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the 8085, Penram International, Mumbai.


second semester

1SEPS 4                                                                                     POWER SYSTEM DYNAMICS



          Reliable electrical power service, Stability of Synchronous machines, Tie-line oscillations, Method of simulation.

          Synchronous Machines:

          Review od synchronous machine equations, parameters, Equations in a-b-c phase co-ordinates and Park's co-ordinates, Representation of external system, Low and High orderstate models, Choice of state variables. Initial state equivalent circuit, Phasor diagram p.u. reactances.

          System Response to Large Disturbances:

          System of one machine against infinite bus, Classical Model, Mechanical and electrical torques, Critical clearing angle and time, Automatic reclosing, Precalculated Swing curves and their use.


          System Response to Small Disturbances:

          Two machine system with negligibe losses, Clarke diagram for two machine series reactance system, Extention of Clarke diagram to cover any reactance network, Equation for steady State Stability limit, Two-Machinesystem with losses, Effect of inertia. Effect of governor, action, Conservative criterion for stability, Effect of sallency, saturation and short circuit ratio on steady state power limits.

          Regulated Synchronous Machines:

          Demagnetising effect of armature reaction and effect of small speed changes, Modes of oscillations of unregulated multimachine system. Voltage regulator and governor coach with delay Distribution of power impacts.

          Effect of Excitation on Stability:

          Effect of excitation on generator power limits, transients and dynamic stability, Examination of dynamic stability by Routh's criterian, Root locus analysis of a regulated machine connected to an infinite bus. Approximate System representation, Supplementary Stabilising Signals, Linear analysis of stabillised generator.


1.       Synchronous Machines by C.Concordia, John Wiley & Sons.

2.       Power System Stability by E.W.Kimbark, Dover Publication, Vol.-3

3.       Power System Control & Stability by Anderson, Galgotia Publ.

4.       Power System Stability by S.B. Crary, John Wiley & Sons.


1SEPS 5                                                                                     DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING


          Digital Signal Processing

          Characterization & Classification of Digital Signals. Digital Signal Processing of continuous signals. Discrete time signals - sequences, representation of signals on orthogonal basis, sampling, aliasing, quantization & reconstruction of signals.

          Discrete systems-attributes, z-transform, analysis of LTI system. Frequency analysis, inverse systems, Discrete Fourier transform, Fast Fourier implementation of discrete time system.

          Digital filters - structures, sampling, recursive, non-recursive A to D & D to A conversion. FIR, IIR & lattice filter structures, Design of FIR digital filters. Window method, Park-McCellan's method. Design of IIR digital filters. Butterworth, Chebyshev.


          Elliptic approximations, low-pass, band-pass, band-stop & high-pass filters. Effect of finite register length in FIR filter design.

          Multirate signal processing-motivation-application, decimation & interpolation, sample rate conversion, polyphase implementation of sampling rate conversion, Filter bank theory-DFT filter banks, Adaptive filtering theory.

          DSP Processors and Applications - DSP Microprocessor architectures, fixed point, floating point precision, algorithm design, mathematical, structural and numerical constraints, DSP programming, filtering, data conversion; communication applications. Real time processing considerations including interrupts.

Refernce Books :

1.       J.G.Proakis and D.G.Manolakis 'Digital Signal Processing Principles, Algorithm and Applications' Prentice Hall 1997

2.       A.V.Oppenheim, R.W.Schafer, 'Discrete Time Signal Processing' John Wiley.

3.       J.R. Johnson, ' Introduction to Digital Signal Processing  Prentice Hall 1992

4.       D.J.Defatta, J.G.Dulas. Hodgekiss, 'Digital Signal Processing' J. Wiley and Sons Singapore, 1988

5.       L.R.Rabiner & B. Gold - 'Theory & Applications of Digital Signal Processing', Prentice Hall,  1992


1 SEPS 6                                                                                   POWER SYSTEM LAB.-I

          Indentify and perform minimum 16 (sixteen) experiments based on syllabus of subjects form Semester-I.


third  semester

2Seps1                                                                         advanced power system protection


          Review of principles of power system equipments protection, cinfiguration of various solid state protection scheme, evaluation of digital relays from electromechanical relays, performance & operational characteristics of digital protection, Basic elements of digital filtering, analog multiplexers, conversions of system: the sampling theorem, signal aliasing error, sample & hold circuit, multiplexers, analog to digital conversion, digital filtering concepts, A digital relay. Hardware & Software.

section - b

          Mathematical background to protectional algorithm, first derivative (Mann & Morrison) algorithm, Fourier algorithm- full cycle window algorithm, fractional cycle window algorithm, Walsh function based algorithm, least square based algorithm, differential equation based algorithm, travelling wave based technique. Digital differential protection of transformer, digital line differential protection, recent advances in digital protection of power system.

Books Recommended :

1)       Digital Protection for Power System : A.T.Johns and S.K.Salman, Peter, Published by Peter Peregrinus Ltd. on behalf of the IEE, London, U.K.

2)       Power System Protection and Switchgear : Badri Ram and D.N.Vishvakarma, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.

3)       Transmission Network Protection : Theory and Practice, Y.G.Paithankar, Marcel Dekker, New York, U.S.A.

4)       Fundamentals of Power System Protection : Y.G.Paithankar and S.R. Bhide, Prentice Hall of India, New Delhi.


2 Seps 2                                                                                    high voltage transmission


          Introduction of EHV-AC transmission, Tower configuration, Thermal ratings of lines & cables, circuit breakers, insulators for A.C. transmission, Voltage gradients of conductors, Cuona effects, power loss & audible noise, radio interferences, electrostatic field of transmission lines, Insulation characteristics of ling air gaps. Design of EHV lines based upon steady state limits, transient overvoltages & voltage stability, series shunt compensation, active & reactive power flow control, basics of static VAR compensators.




          H.V.D.C. Transmission:

          General aspects of comparison between HVDC & HVDC transmission schemes and terminal station layout.

          Operation of converters as rectifier and as an inverter. Equivalent circuit and operating chart of converter.

          Control of the converters ( ccc & cca ) Harmonics  and its control, faults protection of line and terminal equipment.

          Parallel operation of HVDC and AC, Multiterminal HVDC Systems

reference  books :

1.       Weedy, B.M. : Electric Power Systems, John Wiley & Sons.

2.       EHV Transmission Line Refernce Book : Edison Electric Inst.

3.       Adamson, C & Hingorani N.G. . HVDC Power Transmission, Garraway Publications.

4.       Kimbark, E.W. : Direct Current Transmission, Vol.I, John Wiley & Sons.

5.       Uhlman, E. : Transmission by D.C.

6.       Rakosh Das Beganudre : Extra High Voltage AC Transmission Engineering.


2 SEPS 3                                                                       POWER SYSTEM MODELLING & CONTROL


          Transient response and concept of stability in Electrical Power System.

          Modelling of Power System.

          Control of voltage, frequency and tie-line power flows, Q-v and P-f control loops, mechanism of real and reactive power control.

          Mathematical model of speed govening system. Turbine governor contrate as affecting the power system dynamics. Transion and steady state response in the interconnected power systems. (multimedia systems). Excitation systems. Transformation model of exciter system. Analysis using block diagrams. Power systems stabilizers.

          Dynamic stability (small disturbances), effect of exitation control and turbine dyanmics, characteristic equation, method of analysis of the stability of power system.

          Multimachine systems, Flux decay effects.

          Multimachine systems with constant impedance loads, matrix representation of a passive network in the transient state, converting to a common reference frame. Converting machine co-ordinates to system reference, relation between machine current and voltages, system order, machine represented by classical methods, multimachines systems study.


          Net interchange tie-line bias control. Optimal, sub-optimal and decentralised controllers. Discrete mode AGC.  Time - error and inadvertent interchange correction techniques. On-line computer control. Distributed digital  control. Data acquisition systems. Emergency control, preventive control, system, system wide optimization, SCADA.

          Self excited electro-mechanical osillations in power system and the means for control.


1)       V.Venlkov : Transient Processes in Electrical Power System, Mir Publication, Moscow.

2)       Olle I.Elgard : Electric Energy Systems Theory, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co., New Delhi.

3)       Anderson P.M. & Foaud A.A. : Power System Control and Stability, Galgotia Pub.

4)       Nagrath I.J., Kothari D.P. : Modern Power System Analysis, Tata McGraw Hill Pub. Co., New Delhi.

fourth semester

2SEPS 4                                                                         COMPUTER METHODS IN POWER



1.       Representation of power systems for computerised analysis: Mathematical models of synchronous generator for steady state and transient analysis, Transformer with tap changer, transmission line, phase shifter and loads.

2.       Topology of Electric Power System-Network Graphs, Incidence matrices, fundamental loop and cutest matrices,primitive impedance and admittance matrices, equillibrium equations of networks. Singular and nonsingular transformation of network matrices.

3.       Formation of bus impedence and admittance matrices by algorithm - Modification of bus impedence and admittance matrix to account for change in networks. Derivation of loop impedance matrix.

          Three phase network elements-transformation matrix -incidance and network matrices for three phase network. Algorithm for formulation of 3 - phase bus impedence matrix.


4.       Short Circuit Studies : Three phase network, Symmetrical components. Thevenin's theorem and short circuit analysis of multinode ower systems using bus impedance matrix. Short circuit calculations for balanced and unbalanced short circuits bus impedenace and look impedance matrices.

5.       Load flow studies : Sleek bus, loop buses, voltage control buses, Load flow equations, Power flow model using bus admittance matrix, Power flow solution through Gauss-Seidal and N-R methods - sensitivity analysis, Second order N-R method, fast mecouple load flow method - Sparsity of matrix. Multiarea power flow analysis with the line control.

6.       Stability studies of Power System - Development of mathematical model for multimachine system stability analysis-Formation of equations and method of solution. Transient stability analysis including synchronous machines, system network and loads.

          Solution of state equation by modified Eular method and solution of network equations by Gauss-Seidal interactive method.


1)       Computer Methods in Power System Analysis : G.W.Stage A.H.Elabiad, McGraw Hill Book Co.

2)       Computer Techniques in Power System Analysis : M.A. Pai, Tata McGraw Hill Publication.

3)       Electric Energy System Theory : O.I.Elgard, Tata McGraw Hill Publication.

4)       Computer Aided Power System Operation and Analysis: R.N.Dhar, Tata McGraw Hill Publication.

5)       Modern Power System Analysis : I.J.Nagrath, D.E.Kothar, Tata McGraw Hill, New Delhi.


2SEPS 5                                                                                     FACTS  AND POWER QUALITY


                         Steady state and dynamic problems in AC systems, Flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), principles of series shunt compensation, description of static var compensation (SAC), thyristor controlled series compensation (TCSC) static phase shitters (SPS), static condenser (STATCON), static synchronous series compensator (SSSC) and unified power flow controller (UPFC), modelling and analysis of FACTS controllers, control strategies to improve system stability.


          Power quality problems in distribution systems, Harmonics, Harmonics creating loads, modelling, harmonic propagation,series and parallel resonance, harmonic power flow, mitigation of harmonics, filters,passive filters, active filters,shunt and series hybrid filters, voltage sag ans swells, voltage flicker, mitigation of power quality problems using power electronics conditioners, IEEE standards.

Books Recommended :

1)       G.T.Heydt : Power Quality, Stars in a Circle Publication, Indiana, 1991.

2)       E.J.E.Miller : Static Reactive Power Compensation, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1982.

3)       Recent Publications on Power Systems and Power Delivery.


2 SEPS  6                                                                                   POWER SYSTEM LAB.-II

          Identify and perform minimum 16 (sixteen) experiments based on syllabus of subjects form Semester-II.




(As per given scheme)




(As per given scheme)    


mechanical engineering





1S PMTE1                                                                                 ADVANCED MATHEMATICS



          Formation of partial differential equations, solution of Lagrange’s form Pp + Qq =R; Linear partial differential equations with constant coefficients and its solution, complimentary function and particular integral.


          Method of separation of variables, solution of wave equation, one dimensional and two dimensional heat flow equation in steady state (Lap lace equation) and its solution.

3.       STATISTICS: -

          Method of least squares, curve fitting by graphical method. Co-relation. Regression, Probability distribution. Binomial, Poisson’s and Normal Distribution.


          Newton’s interpolation formulae, Newton’s and Gauss’s forward and backward interpolation formulae, Interpolation with unequal intervals, Lagrange’s formula for unequal intervals. Newton’s divided difference formula. Inverse interpolation


          Numerical integration:- Newton-Cote’s formula, Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s one third and three eighth rule, Waddle’s rule. Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. Taylor’s series, Runge-Kutta and Euler’s method. Milne’s corrector method.


          Linear programming, formulation of problem, simplex method, Duality concept and principle, dual simplex method.


NOTE:-      Tutorials to be prepared on each unit using MATLAB programming.

Books recommended:-

1.       Advance Engineering Mathematics (VII  and VIII edition) by Erwin Kreyszig

2.       Operation Research by Premkumar Gupta and D.S.Hira

3.       A Text Book on Engineering Mathematics by Bali.Saxena,Iyenger

4        Fundamentals of Statestics by S.C.Gupta

5.       Higher Engineering Mathematics by B.S.Grewal

6.       Advanced Engineering Mathematics by H.K.Dass


1S PMTE 2                                                                              Advanced Thermodynamics


          Introduction and Overview: Introductory Concepts and Preliminaries; Properties of Pure Substances; Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics, Energy Transfer by Heat, Work, and Mass; Second Law of thermodynamics, Entropy: A Measure of Disorder.

          Exergy: A Measure of Work Potential. Exergy Analysis: Frame of reference; Ambient State, Dead state; Convertible energy and Maximum work; Derivation of Exergy and Exalpy; Chemical Energy, Exergy from Heat and Work, Exergetic Efficiency, Generation of Entropy, Anergy. (Standard- Terminology- Reference: Paper on Exergy Analysis by G Lucca in Hand Book Acc. No. 18243 “A future for Energy: Flower’ 90”)


          The two Laws combined: Review on some consequences of first Law, Limitations of first Law, Thermodynamic Temperature Scale, Practical Temperature Measurement, Clausius Clapeyron Equation, Stefan’s Law. Helmholtz and Gibbs Functions, Availability in Steady Flow, Irreversibility and Effectiveness, Combined First and Second Laws, Isothermal and Adiabatic Compressibility; Joule-Kelvin Coefficient Maxwell Equation, Vander wall’s Gas Equation; Equilibrium among Phases of a Pure Substances.

          Multi Phase Systems: General considerations, Dalton & Amagat Model, Mixture of gases and vapors. Changes in Molal Properties upon Mixing, Gibbs entropy Equation and Gibbs -Duhem Equation.

          Chemically Reactive systems: Thermodynamics of reactive Systems and Criterion of Equilibrium, Phase rule. Combustion Process, Enthalpy of formation; First Law Analysis of Reacting Systems; Second Law analysis of Reacting Systems, Equilibrium Constant and its temperature Dependence.

          Thermodynamic Optimization: Exergy analysis of Vapor and Gas Power Cycles, Guideline for improving Thermodynamic Effectiveness; Exergy analysis of Simple Power Plant (Steam Plant) or Energy efficiency of Industrial Production Schemes (e.g. Helium Liquefaction System);

          Introduction to: Irreversible Thermodynamics and Thermodynamics of High-Speed Gas Flow.



1.       Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics Adrian Bejan Wiley  N Y 2nd Ed. ISBN 0471148806

2.       Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics Benson R S Pergamon, Oxford

3.       Methods Of Thermodynamics, by Reiss H, Pub.  Blaisdell  N Y

4.       CRC handbook of Thermal Engg Kreith; Frank CRC ISBN 084939581x

5.       Analysis of Energy Efficiency of Industrial Processes Stepanov, Vladimir S. Springer Verlag  ISBN 038754080     

6.       An introduction to statistical thermodynamics Terrel L Hill              

7.       Fundamentals of classical Thermodynamics,Van Wylen, Sonntag, Borgnakke, John Wiley

8.       Thermodynamics , K E Wark, McGH

9.       Thermodynamics for Engrs, B V Karlekar, Prentice Hall

10.     Cycles And Performance Estimation Hodge J Butterworth London

11.     Availability Analysis Moran M J  Prentice Hall

12.     The Exergy Method of System Analysis J E Ahern  Wiely-Interscience N Y

13.     Technical Thermodynamics Bosnjakovic ; Pub Blacksher N Y

14.     Applied Thermodynamics Babits G Allen & Bacon , Boston


1S PMTE 3                                                                                                  FLUID DYNAMICS 


1.       Fluid flow concepts, Euler’s equations of motion, Navier stoke equation, equation of continuity, Rotational irrotational flows, potential and stream functions, and flow nets circulations. Velocity.

2.       Basic function- Uniform stream, sink, vertex doublet superposition of functions, flow over half bodies, Rankine bodies, circular cylinder, Magnus effect.

3.       Conformation Mapping – Simple transformation and inverse transformations.

4.       Boundary layer, theory for laminar and Turbulent flow, Blasius solution for flat plate, approximate methods, boundary layer separation and control, effect of roughness.

5.       Turbulent flow, Semi empirical theories of turbulence, eddy viscosity, Prandtl’s mixing length theory, Kerman’s similarity hypothesis, Taylor’s Verticity transfer theory.

6.       Review of one dimensional compressible flow, approximation to two and three dimensional such as sonic, supersonic flows, small perturbation Theory, Shock Waves, Prandtl Mayors equation.

Books recommended:

1)       Foundation of Fluid Dynamics –YUAN

2)       Advanced Fluid Dynamics – BINDER

3)       Dynamics and Thermodynamics –SHAPIROO.

          (For compressible flow Vol. I +II)

4)       Boundary Layer Theory – SCHLICHTING.

5)       Fluid Dynamics – PAO.

6)       Fluid Dynamics – SHAMES

7)       Recent Advances in Fluid Mechanics Editors P L Sachdev, M Venkatchalappa.( Gordon & Breach science Publishers)

8)       Physical fluid Dynamics, D J Trinton, Oxford Science Pub

9)   An Introduction to Fluid Dynamics, By G K Batchelor, Cambridge Mathematical Library



2S PMTE1                                                                                 ADVANCED HEAT TRANSFER                                

          Introduction to basic fundamentals, two dimensional heat conduction, graphical and numerical analysis, unsteady state heat conduction, Transient numerical methods.

          Convection heat transfer, free and forced convection co-relations, combined free and forced convection.

          Radiation processes and properties, radiation exchange between surfaces, gas radiation, radiation network.

          Condensation and boiling heat transfer, transpiration cooling, ablation. Heat pipe- classification, construction and application



1.       Heat Transfer by J.P. Holman, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication

2.       Heat Transfer by S.P. Sukhatme, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication

3.       Heat and Mass Transfer by Eckert and Drake, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication

4.       Principles of Heat Transfer by Kreith and Bohn, P.W.S. Publishing Company.

5.       Convective heat & mass transfer by Kays and Crawford, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication.

6.       Radiation Heat Transfer by E.M. Sparrow and R.D. Cess, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication.

7.       Heat Transfer by Karlekar, P.H.I. Publication

8.       Computer aided heat transfer analysis by Adams J.A. & Roger D.F. Tata MacGraw Hill Publication.

9.       Introduction to Convective Heat Transfer analysis by Patrick Oosthuizen, Queens University, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication.

10.     Heat transfer handbook, Nichola P. Chereminioff, Jaico Publishing House.

11.     Heat pipe theory application by S. W. Chi

12.     Advances in Heat Pipe Technology by Reay.



2S PMTE 2                                                                                  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY


1.       Research Concept: Concept, meaning, objectives, motivation; Types of research, approaches (descriptive research, conceptual, theoretical, applied, and experimental research)


2.       Formulation of Research Task: Literature Review: importance & methods, sources, qualification of cause effect relations, discussions, field study, laboratory experiments,  critical analysis of already generated facts, hypothetical proposal for future development and testing, selection of research task, prioritization of research.


3.       Mathematical Modeling and Simulation: concept of modeling, classification of mathematical models, modeling with ordinary differential equations, differential equations, partial differential equations, graphs. Simulation concept, types (quantitative, experimental, computer, fuzzy theory, statistical), process of formulation of model based on simulation.

4.       Experimental Modeling:


          a.     Definition of experimental design, examples, single factor experiments, blocking and nuisance factors, guidelines for designing experiments.

          b.    General model of process: Input factors/variables, Output parameters/variables, controllable/ uncontrollable variables, dependent/ independent variables, compounding variables, extraneous variables; experimental validity.

          c.     Process optimization, designed experiments: methods for study of response surface, First order design. Determining optimum combination of factors, determination of steepest ascent, Taguchi approach to parameter design.


5.       Analysis of results (Parametric and Non parametric, Descriptive and Inferential Data): types of data, collection of data (normal distribution, calculation of correlation coefficient), processing analysis, error analysis, meaning, and different methods; analysis of variance, significance of variance, analysis of co- variance, multiple regression, testing linearity/ non linearity of model, testing adequacy of model, testing model/hypothesis.


6.       Report writing: types of report, layout of research report, interpretation of results, style manuals, layout and format, style of writing, typing, references, pagination, tables, figures, conclusions, appendices.


7.       Landscape of Creativity: Convergent Vs. divergent thinking, creativity, creativity Vs. intelligence, creativity abilities, creativity and madness, determination of creativity, increasing creativity, creative achievement, techniques  of creativity, collective creativity.


          (Term work: Ten Assignments based on above.)



1.       Willkinson k, P L Bhandarkar, “Formulation of Hypothesis” Himalaya Pub Mumbai

2.       Schank Fr, “Theories of Engg Experiments”, TMcGH

3.       Douglas Montgomary, Design of experiments”

4.       Introduction to SQC, John Wielly & Sons

5.       John W Besr & James V Kahn, “Research in Education”, PHI Pub

6.       Adler and Granovky, “ Optimization of Engg Experints Mir Pub

7.       Cochran & Cocks, “Experimental design”, John Wielly & sons.

8.       S S Rao” Optimization Theory & Applications”, Wiely Eastern N Delhi

9.       C R Kothari, “Research Methodology”, Wiley Eastern ND 


2S PMTE 3                                                                                                                           Lab Practice - I


          Lab Practice will constitute laboratory experimentation, design / simulation / programming assignments, industrial visits etc under Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Advanced Thermodynamics, Advanced Heat Transfer,  and Research Methodology.




3S PMTE1                                                                                 Modern Energy Sources &

                                                                                                   Power Plant Economics

1.       SOLAR ENERGY: -

          Fundamentals of heat transfer. Flat plate and concentrating collectors- design, analysis and performance, applications. Photovoltaic power.


          Applications, Design aspects, Power generation methods, various cycles and analysis.


          Design of various components, analysis, performance and methods of power generation.


          Power plant economics, Advance trends in Thermal, Nuclear, and Hydel power generation.

Books :

1)       Principles of Solar Thermal Engineering by F.Kreith & J.F.Kreider, McGraw Hill Publications1978

2)       Solar Engines of thermal Processes by J.A.Duffie and W.A.Beckman, John Wiley & Sons publication 1999.

3)       Applied Solar Energy by A.B.Meinal & F.P.Meinal, Addison Wesley 1976 publication.

4)       Power Plant Technology by El-Wakil, Tata McGraw Hill publication

5)       Power Plant Engineering by Morse.


3S PMTE 2:                                                                               Heat exchanger Design 


          Introduction, Double pipe heat exchanger, shell and tube heat exchanger, cross flow heat exchanger, design considerations, thermal deign of heat exchanger, various designing methods, performance calculations.

          Mechanical design of various components like shell, tube sheet, nozzles. Selection of material for various components.



1.       Process Heat Transfer by D.Q. Kern, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication

2.       Heat Exchanger Design by Frass & Ozisik, John Wiley and Sons, Newyork

3.       Convective Heat transfer by Kays and London, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication

4.       ANSI Standards for pipe and nozzle selection – 1996

5.       ASME Section VIII Division for pressure Vessel and Boiler Design Code – 1995

6.       Approximate sizing of shell and tube heat exchanger, Heat exchanger Design Handbook, by Kenneth J. Bell, Hemi                                    sphere Publishing Corporation

7.       ASME section II, Material Specifications – 1995

8.       Mechanical design of hear exchanger design &  Pressure vessel component,

          by Sing K.P. & Soler A. I.; Arcturus Publishers Cherry Hill

9.       Process Heat Exchange by Robert Kern, Tata MacGraw Hill Publication

10.     Heat exchanger Design handbook, Saunders E A.D., Hemisphere Publishing Corporation 1986

11.     Tubular Exchange Manufacturer Association ( TEMA ) 7th Edition  — 1988


3S PMTE 3                                                                                               Elective –I

                                                                                                                (i)  S.I.  Engines  


          Fuels: Suitability of fuels for S.I. Engines, Fuel ratings, fuel additives.

          Alternative fuels: Alcohols, hydrogen, LPG, CNG, Gaseous fuels.

          Fuel supply systems, Carburetion, fuel supply system, Design for low emissions, MPFI, electronic controls,

          Theory of combustion: Working process, stages of combustion, heat release rates calculations, flame front propagation, rate of pressure rise, p-q diagram, abnormal combustions, S.I. engine cycle calculations,

          Combustion Chambers: Requirement of C.C. for S.I. engines. and combustion chambers for MPFI.

          Emissions: Theory of emission formation, causes and control, emission norms, emissions control by engine modifications, emission after treatment, exhaust system devices, catalytic converters, thermal reactors.

          Performance Characteristics: Variables affecting performance of S.I. engines, methods of performance improvement, effect of altitude and ambient conditions on engine performance parameters. Analytical method of performance estimation, supercharging.

          Modern engine technologies, mean value S.I. Engine modeling, Variable cam timing engine.


1.       Fundamentals of Internal combustion engines by John. B.Heywood. McGraw hill Publications

2.       I.C.Engines by Maleev

3.       Internal combustion engines by Benson R. S. Vol I and Vol II

4.       I.C. Engines by Taylor and Taylor


3S PMTE 3                                                                                                Elective -I

                                                                                                (ii) ADVANCED REFRIGERATION

          Review Of Basic Refrigeration Cycles, Reverse Carnot Cycle, Second Law Of Thermodynamics. Vapor Compression Refrigeration.  Standard And Actual Compression Cycle.

          Multi Pressure Systems, Refrigeration Component Matching And System Integration, Thermodynamics of Vapor Absorption Refrigeration, Non Conventional Refrigeration Systems with elementary analysis.

          Properties Of Refrigerants, Green House Effect, Numbering And Color Coding Of Refrigerants, Recent Trends In Refrigerants. Air as refrigerant and air refrigeration cycles

          Refrigerant Component Matching And Designing Refrigeration Components Like Compressor, Condenser, Capillary, Condenser Etc.



          Thermal Environmental Engineering, Therlkeld J.L., Prentice Hall, NY, 1970.

          Refrigeration & Air Conditioning, Stoecker W.E. & Jones J.W., Tata Mcgraw Hill , Refrigeration And Air Conditioning,          C.P.Arora, Tata Mcgraw Hill, 1996.

          Modern Refrigeration and Air conditioning (2004) By Andrew Daniel Althouse. Carl Harold Turnquist (Hardcover                                   Text)

          Ashrae Hand Books, 1994,1995,1996,1997 .



4S PMTE 1                                                                                               Elective –II

(i)   C. I. Engines

          Fuels:           Suitability of fuels for C.I. engines; rating of fuels, fuel additives. Alternative fuels: Alternative fuels such as alcohols, CNG, LPG, Bio-diesel, and biomass fuels. Dual-fuel engines.

          Fuel supply Systems: Injection, injection equipment design and injection process, and common Rail Fuel injection.

          Theory of Combustion: Stages of Combustion, factors affecting delay period, abnormal combustion, cycle simulation, models for C.I.  Engine  combustion calculation.

          Combustion Chambers:           Chamber design, matching with fuel injection, selection criteria of combustion chambers, induction and exhaust systems.

          Emissions: Mechanism of formation, Emission norms, strategies of emission control, EGR; Adverse effects of emissions on human health and Environment.

          Performance Characteristics: Variables affecting performance of CI engines, methods of performance improvement, Analytical method of performance estimation.

          Turbocharging: Types, methods and effects, other waste heat utilization practices. EGR, VGT systems. Mathematical model of a turbo-charged diesel engine.

          Advance Engine Technologies: VCT, Microprocessor controls in engines, low heat rejection engines.


List of books recommended

1.       Fundamentals of IC Engines  - J.B. Heywood, McGH

2.       I.C. Engines - Maleev

3.       Internal Combustion Engines- R. S. Benson (Vol. I & Vol.II)

4.       IC Engines- Taylor ( I & II)


4S PMTE 1                                                                                               Elective –II

                                                                                          (ii)    Advacnced Air Conditioning  


          Properties Of Air Water Mixture, Psychometric Air Conditioning Processes, Dehumidification Processes, Comfort Air Conditioning, Parameters Affects Comfort Conditions, Cooling Load Calculations, Design Of Air Delivery Systems To Hospital, Auditorium, Hotels Etc., Noise And Vibration Control In Air Conditioning Hall.

          Air Conditioning Component Selection (Component Matching), Designing Air Ducts, Window Air Conditioner / Split Air Conditioner Performance Testing, Energy calculations- Degree-Day procedure, Bin Method , Comprehensive Simulation methods method, Flow- Pump – and piping Design.

          Electrical Circuits And Components In Air Conditioner Like Olp, Capacitor, Performance Study Of Motors Used For Fan, Blower, Compressor, 



          Air Conditioning Engineering , Jones W.P., Arnold Publication Ltd. London, 1984.

          Control Systems For Heating, Haines R.W.

          Air Conditioning And Ventilation Of Building, Croome- Gole D.J. And Roberts B.M.

          Thermal Environmental Engineering, Therlkeld J.L.,Prentice Hall, Ny, 1970.

          Refrigeration & Air Conditioning, Stoecker W.E. & Jones J.W., Tata Mcgraw Hill , Refrigeration And Air Conditioning,          C.P.Arora, Tata Mcgraw Hill, 1996.

          Ashrae Hand Books, 1994,1995,1996,1997 .

          Heating, Ventilating, and Airconditioning Analysis and design By F.C.Mcquiston , J.D.Parker, J.D.Spitler, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

          Modern A/C, Heating & Ventilation by Carrier, Cherne, Grant, Roberts ( Pitman N Y)

          Modern Refrigeration and Air conditioning (2004) By Andrew Daniel Althouse. Carl Harold Turnquist (hardcover                                    Text)

          Refrigeration, Air conditioning and cold storage By Gnumner Reynold ( Clifton Books Co)


4S PMTE 2                                                                                              Elective -III

                                                                                                              (i)   Gas Turbines    

          General Concepts related to Turbo machinery: Classification; Euler’s Equation for Turbo machinery; Velocity triangle; Cascade analysis & nomenclature. Shaft Power & Aircraft Propulsion Cycles.

          Centrifugal Compressors: Work done and pressure rise; Slip; Compressibility effects; Compressor characteristics. Axial Flow Compressors: Stage pressure rise; Blockage in compressor annulus; Degree of reaction; 3- D flow; Stage performance; h-s diagram & efficiency; Off design performance; Performance characteristics; Design process. Combustion System.

          Axial Flow Turbines: Stage performance; Degree of reaction; h-s diagram & efficiency; Vortex theory; Overall turbine performance; Performance characteristics; Blade cooling; Design process. Prediction of performance of simple gas turbines; Off Design performance; Gas turbine blade materials; Matching procedure.

Recommended Texts

1.       H. Cohen, Gas Turbine Theory, 4th Edition, Longman, 1998.

2.       S.L. Dixon, Fluid Mechanics, Thermodynamics of Turbo machinery, 4th Edition, Pergamon Press, 1998.

3.       Jack D. Mattingly, Elements of Gas Turbine Propulsion, McGraw Hill, Inc., 1996.

4.       Budugur Lakshminarayana, Fluid Dynamics and Heat Transfer of Turbomachinery, John Wiley & Sons, Inc,1996.

5.       Wilson, D. G. The Design of High efficiency turbomachinery and gas turbine, MIT press, 1984.

6.       Horlocks, J.H. Axial Flow Compressors, Krieger Publishing, 1982. 


4S PMTE 2                                                                                              Elective -III

                                                                                                                (ii) CRYOGENICS  

          Introduction:  Historical review and present application areas. Review of thermodynamic relationships, Joule Thomson effect, conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer.  

          Cryogenic Fluids: PVT behavior of a pure substance, Inversion curve, T-S diagram for He N2 O2 air etc, Molecular forms of Hydrogen, Properties and principal uses of cryogenic fluids. Minimum work required liquefying 1 kg?mole of some of the several common cryogens (He, H2. Ne, N2, Air, O2, Methane, Ethane, Ammonia).

          Cryogenic Refrigeration & Gas Liquefaction Systems: Liquefaction systems for (I) gases other than Neon, Hydrogen and Helium (II) for Neon, Hydrogen and Helium.

          Refrigeration methods (i) Evaporation of volatile liquid- VC (ii) Cascade, mixed refrigerant cascade (iii) Isenthalpic expansion (Joule Thomson/Linde apparatus) (iv) An adiabatic (isentropic) expansion, Combination of Isenthalpic and Isentropic expansion (Claude, Modified Claude & Heylandt cycles) (v) Stirling cycle / Phillips refrigerator, (vi) Gifford-McMohan, (vii) Magnetic, (viii) He-He dilution refrigerator.

          Applications: Air separation, liquefaction of natural gas, superconductivity and its application, storage dewars, vacuum technology, low T insulation categories, high vacuum with/without shields, powders, rigid foams, low conductivity solids. Materials for cryogenic service: metals polymers, glass.




1.       MacKinnon, Lachlan, Experimental Physics at Low Temperatures, Wayne Statte University Press, Detroit

2.       Lounasmaa, O. V., Experimental Principles and Methods Below 1 K, New York, Academic Press,

3.       Pobell, Frank, Matter and Methods at Low Temperatures, second edition, Berlin, Springer

4.       White, Guy K., Experimental Techniques in Low-Temperature Physics Third Edition, Oxford Uni. Press,

5.       Cryogenic Process Engineering Timmerhaus K D, Flynn T M Pub.:Plenum

6.       Cryogenic Fundamentals Haselden G Academic Press

7.       Cryogenic Systems Randall F Barron McGH    

8.       Cryogenic Engineering Flynn Thomos M Dekker 

9.       Cryogenics Bryson William E Hanser.Gardner

10.     Cryogenic Refrigeration Flynn, Thomos M, Chen Gyobang

11.     Applied Cryogenic Engg Vance and Duke Wiley

12.     Cryogenic Processes And   Equipment Leonard Wenzel, F J Kadi ASME


4S PMTE 3                                                                                          Lab Practice- II


          Lab Practice will constitute laboratory experimentation, design / simulation / programming assignments on electives of a Group I or Group II



semester : fifth

5S PMTE 1 :         Seminar - I


5S PMTE 2 :         PROJECT


          Seminar 1 -                 General (non- dissertation) topic from the advances in thermal engineering.

          Seminar 2  - Related to candidate’s probable topic for dissertation.




6S PMTE 1:                                                                              DISSERTATION  & VIVA-VOCE

          Substantiation of the topic / title of dissertation shall undergo 2 stages:  Endorsement and Registration.

          Approval (endorsement) by the PG Committee shall be done before / during the commencement of the third semester, and approved topic will be sent without delay to university for registration.

          After confirmation of registration will follow Project presentation (candidate portraying his own scheme in respect of tools / techniques / software and tasks performed through seminar). External and internal examiners will make assessment of each seminar jointly.



environmental engg.

(part time) course

semester :first

1 SCEE 1                                                          ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES AND CHEMISTRY


          The Nature and scope of Environmental Problems :-

          Some important definitions, Interaction of systems, Environmental disturbances, public awareness and action, Quantification of Environmental problems.

          Climatology and Meteorology :-

          Introduction , Basic atmospheric properties, Energy outputs and inputs, wind stability and turbulence, water in the atmosphere, climate.

          Ecology :-

          Introduction, Energy flow in Ecosystems, food chain and trophic levels,  Nutrient  cycles, elements of  limnology , Eutrophication.

          Global Atmospheric change :-

          The green house effect and stratosphere ozone depletion, Global temperature, the green house effect, carbon dioxide, chloroflurocarbons , the green house gases, Regional effects of green house gases, changes in stratospheric ozone, perspective on global atmospheric change.

          General Chemistry:- Law of mass action, Stoichiometry, Gas Laws

          Physical Chemistry:- Types of solution, electrical conductivity and aqueous solution, ionic theory, electrical dissociation, Buffer solutions, Indicators, Solubility products, Common ion effect, 

          Amphoteric hydroxides, chemical equilibria and ways of shifting it.



          Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry :

          Organic compounds of interest to environmental engineers

          ( Details of preparation and chemical reactions involved are not required )

          General preparation of the functional groups of  organic compounds.

          Enzymes, classification, Enzyme carbolysed reactions.

          Break down and synthesis of carbohydrates, fats, protein under  aerobic  and anaerobic reactions.

          CNP cycle under aerobic and anaerobic reactions.

          Concept of B.O.D., C.O.D., T.O.C.

          Colloids, Dispersion of Colloids, General and electrokinetic properties of colloids, colloidal solutions and mixtures.

          Environmental Chemistry :-

          Water structure and anomalous behavior of water ,

          Chemistry involved in water treatment processes like coagulation, disinfection, softening, fluoridation , defluoridation, Iron and its control

          Composition and characterisation of sewage, sewage sludge and gas analysis.

          Chromatography :-

          Principles and uses in Environmental Engg.


Text/ Reference Books :

1)       Introduction to Environmental Engg. and Science – By Gillbert M Masters.

2)       Environmental Science – By. Alam Singh, Vol-I,II,III.

3)       Environmental Science & Engg.- By Henrry.

4)       Fair G M  , Geyr J C , Okun D A , Water and wastewater Engineering, Vol, I & II, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

4)       Chemistry for Environmental Engg.- By. Sawyer & M.c Carty.

5)       Waste water Treatment, Disposal and Reuse – By MetCalf & Eddy.


1SCEE2                                                                          Environmental Microbiology

Section  A

1.        Introduction to microbiology

          Classification of microorganisms, procaryotic cells, eucaryotic cells.

          Characterization of microorganism, microorganism of importance.

          Distribution of biological forms, interrelationship application in the field of Environmental Engineering.

2        Bacteria ;

          Distribution, cytology, forms size, morphology and file structure of bacteria, nutritional requirements, metabolism, growth of bacteria, growth patterns, food microorganism relationship, Aerobic, Anaerobic growth.

          Factor affecting growth, generation time.

3        Bacteriology of water :

          Pathogens and indicator of pollution, method of isolation, enumeration and differentiation. Presumptive, confirmative and completed test for E-coli, most probable number, Membrane filter technique, indicators of pollution, sampling method, frequency, precautions.

          Microbiology of food :

          Microorganisms associated with milk and food, diseases transmitted, food poisoning,


4        Enzymes

          Nature of enzymes, mode of actions, effect of temperature, pH, salts and heavy metal, extra cellular and intracellular enzymes classification, source of enzymes, enzymes formation.

5.        Fresh water biology :

          Flora and fauna in rivers, distribution, limnology, biological cycles, oxygen concentration, nutrient concentration, oxygen depletion, oxygen sag reaeration, Lake eutrophication  and its prevention.


Section  B

6.        Algae, Fungi Protozoa and viruses :

          General, introduction to these groups, their role in environmental Engineering and their classification, identification, observation nutrition, reproductions, their control.

          Viruses :

          Occurrence, special features,  diseases caused by them, culturing, control of viruses.

7        Bacterial culture :

          Isolation of microorganisms, staining procedures, pure and mix cultures, culture characteristics, different medias, selective methods, interference, gram positive and negative bacteria laboratory ulturing techniques, equipments used, microscope, autoclave, incubator, test chamber.

8         Microbiology of waste water treatment :

          Microorganisms, fundamental theory, theory of operations, oxygen requirements and environmental factors associated with following waste treatment methods.

·         Activated sludge process

·         Trickling filter

·         Oxidation pond

·         Sludge digestion

·         Cesspools, septic tank and imhoff tank

9.        Air microbiology :

          Types of microorganisms, Air borne diseases, sampling of air, microbial content of air, control of airborne diseases.

10.      Control of microorganisms

          Death of bacteria

          Pattern of death, effect of temp,  pH, toxic substances on growth of bacteria, Antagonism and synergism.

          Control of microorganisms by physical agents, Control of microorganisms by chemical agents.


          Determination of :-

          1) Conductivity  2) pH (indicators and pH meter)  3) Turbidity  4) Hardness (Calcium and total by EDTA method)  5) Sulphate  6) Chlorides  7)Chlorine demand  and Chlorine residual (Available, Break point dose)  8) Nitrogen all types  9) DO, BOD 10) COD, TOC  11) Iron and Manganese  12)Acidity and Alkalinity 13) Fluorides  14) Solids (Fixed, suspended and Volatile) (ANY TEN)


                         Study of instruments, Heterotrophic plate count,  preparation of differential media  isolation of bacteria by various methods, staining of bacteria, eneumeration of bacteria by various methods, M.F. technique, Control of microorganisms.


second semester

2 SCEE 1                                                                                    WATERSHED MANAGEMENT



          The hydrological cycle, storage, concept of storage, the watershed


          Energy movement, quality of energy, the geometry of energy, the energy budget, Instruments and limitations, the role of water in energy sphere.


          Instrumentation and limitations, Processes, Global circulation, Precipitation, sources of precipitation, forms of precipitation, Temporal and spatial distribution, Evaporation, the amount, factors affecting evaporation, Dalton’s Law, Instruments, limitations.


          Processes, interception, Transpiration, Evapotranspiration, calculations by using water budget, Evapotranspiration, models, storage.

5.       Hydrology in water resources development, statistical analysis of rainfall and runoff, different distributions methods, Estimation of Unit Hydrograph-flood flow formulae, Storm hydrograph, Storage and regulation of runoff-safe yield of streams, Estimate of storage requirements.



          Common aquifers-Exploration for ground water, hydraulics of ground water flow- Measurement of permeability of formations, flownets and their constructions, Boundary conditions – Unconfined and Confined, steady and unsteady flow into wells and infiltration galleries – Evaluation of formulation constant interference, Method of images – Types, design, construction and maintenance of wells and infiltration galleries, Development of wells – well strainer – functions and selections, field tests – Hydraulics of salt water intrusions and their prevention , Ground water recharge.


          Definition, Need and scope, characterization of watershed criteria survey, Basic data collection and interpretation, Establishment of watershed research stations. Watershed resource evaluation and management. Irrigation technology. Integrated farming system. Project formulation and economic analysis.


          Methodologies for modifying the water resource environment, watershed management and large scale changes.


          Rehabilitation, Protection and Enhancement


          The legal basis, the process of non point source pollution control, Best management practices principles, Best management practices on wet lands.


          Necessity, Methods of rain water harvesting, Requirements for design of project, community participation, Role of NGO’s, Government and Municipal Corporation, Limitations, quality assurance of stored water.


1.       Watershed Hydrology by Peter E. Black.

2.       Water Resources Systems, Planning and Management by R.N.Chaturvedi.




2SCEE2                                                                          ADVANCED WATER TRETMENT


          Standards for raw and treated waters. Surface waters. Effects of storage on water quality.   Limnology.  Water ecology, Thermal stratification. Seasonal Change, lake overturns. Algee, Control measures, quality of underground Waters.   Nature and source of impurities.  Examination of waters. 

          Requirements of water treatment facilities.   Process design abd hydraulic design.   Unit operations, Gravity systems, pumping systems.   Period of design, Fluctuations in demand. Intake structures. Useful concepts from water chemistry and biology. 

          Principles of sedimentation and floatation.   General equations for settling or discrete particulates.   Hindred settling, effect of Temperature, viscosity efficiency of an ideal basin, short-circuiting.   Sludge moisture content – specific gravity relationship.   Up flow and sludge blanket tanks – mathematical model of the unit processes. 

          Theories of chemical coagulation. Nature of colloids. Zeta potential.  Coagulant and their specificity.   Design of mechanical flocculators. Mean velocity gradient “G”, “Gt” effect of temperature and other variables.   Power consumption.   Mathematical Modelling. 


          Theory of filtration.  System Parameter and mathematical modeling, size and shape characteristics of granualar filtering materials.   Preparations of filter sand, Hydraulics of filtration through homogeneous and stratified beds.   Performance of slow, rapid, high-rate multiplayer and composite filters.   Upflow, two way filter, dual media filter. 

          Pressure filters.   Diatomaceous earth filters.   Mico-strainers.   Filtrability Index. 

          Principles of desinfection.   Factors affecting disinfection.   Halogens: Chlorine, Iodine and Bromine. 

          Principles of aeration, System parameters and mathematical model.   Methods of aeration.   Theories of adsorption.   Freudlich equation.   Removal of taste and adour by adsorption.   Removal of colour.   Effects of fluorides.   Fluoridation.   Removal of fluorides. 

          Industrial water treatment: Boiler feed water.   Softening of water.   Langlier, Ryzner and other indices.   Reuse of water and conservation of water in industry. 

          Methods of Iron and Manganese removal.   Use of aeration, oxidation, ion-exchange and other methods and their control. 

          Theory of corrosion, and corrosion control.



1.       Water and Waste water Engineering by Fair Geyer and Okun, John Willy and Sons

2.       Water and Waste water Technology by Mark J. Hammer, John Willy and Sons

3.       Water Supply and Sewerage by E.W.Steel and McGhee, Mc Graw Hill Company.

4.       Manual on Water Supply & Treatment, CPHEEO, New Delhi.

5.       Physico-Chemical Processes for Water Quality Control by Weber, John Wiley & Sons, 1972.


2SCEE3                                                                         ADVANCED WASTEWATER TREATMENT


1.       INTRODUCTION: Objectives of waste water treatment, Purpose of advanced wastewater treatment, Wastewater quantity and transport and waste water characteristics. Alternative flowcharts, function and basic principles involved in different units of conventional wastewater treatment plant.

2.       PROCESS ANALYSIS: Reaction and reaction kinetics, Mass balance, Reactors and their hydraulic characteristics, Practical aspects of reactor design.

3.       PHYSICAL AND CHEMIXCAL TREATMENT: Screening, Grit removal, flow equalisations and mixing. Flocculation, sedimentation, flotation. Detailed principles and design aspects of Screening, Grit chamber and Sedimentation tank.


4.       PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT: Kinetics of biological growth, introduction to suspended and fixed film reactors. Concepts of gas transfer and solids separation, Nitrogen and Phosphrous removal from waste water. Concepts of aerobic and anaerobic treatment of waste water. Design of Activated Sludge system using biological process dynamics. Complete design details of Activated Sludge Process. Modifications of ASP. Process concepts and design aspects of Trickling Filters, Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC), Fluidized bed reactor/treatment.

5.       SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL: Aerobic and Anaerobic digestion of sludge, sludge stabilization, dewatering, conditioning and disposal.

6.       TERTIARY TREATMENT: Principles of tertiary treatment, theory of adsorption and factors affecting adsorption. Concepts and different methods of dissolved solids removal. Basic principles of Reverse Osmosis, Ultra-filtration, Electro dialysis, Desalination.


1.       Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal & Reuse, By Metcalf & Eddy Inc. Sixth Ed. 2002, McGraw Hill.

2.       Introduction to Environmental Engg., By. P.A. Veslind, PWS, Publishing Compony, Boston, 1997.

3.       Wastewater Treatment and disposal, By S.J. Arceivalla, Marcel Dekker, 1981.

4.       Wastewater Treatment Plant Planning, Design and Operation, By S.R. Quasim, Holt, Rinehart & Winston N.Y.

5.       Activated Sludge Process: Theory and Practices, By N.F Grey, Oxford University Press, 1990.


third semester

3 SCEE1                                                                        Environmental Impact Assessment

                                                                                                     and Management


1.       Development and Environment, need for EIA, concept of EIA, elements of EIA, environmental attributes, nature of impacts – primary, secondary, tertiary, short-term, long-term, local and regional, reversible & irreversible impacts

2.       Overview of impacts – directly & indirectly measurable impacts w.r. to air, noise, water, land, biological & socio-economic environment

3.       Screening and scoping in EIA, terms of reference for conducting EIA, methodologies of EIA-checklists, matrices, overlays, cost benefit analysis, & adaptive environment and management, networks

4.       Framework of EIA – scope of EIA, baseline data collection, prediction of impacts, evaluation of impacts, battelle environmental evaluation system, environmental management plan, greenbelt development, environmental quality monitoring, budgetary provisions for implementing control measures

5.       Environmental appraisal of projects, MoEF questionnaire for environmental clearance, element of public participation & hearing, case studies on EIA of industrial, mining, highway and water resources projects, critical environmental issues and formulation of strategies for EMP for these projects


1.       Environmental legislation – basic concepts, critical issues, civil liability, various enactment and their provisions – Water Act (1974, 1988), Forest Conservation Act (1980), Air Act (1981, 1988), Water (Cess) Act 1977, Environmental Protection Act 1986, Public Liability & Insurance Act, Motor Vehicle Act 1989, Rules for Hazardous waste handling, storage & disposal, environmental tribunal & its functions. Implementation mechanism of environmental legislation. Role of State & Central boards of pollution control, local Govt., social action groups, Environmental policies.

2.       Environmental Audit – definition, concept of EA, types of environmental audit, benefits of environmental audit, scope & objectives, environmental statement, procedural aspects of conducting environmental audit, pre-audit phase, on-site audit phase & post-audit phase, water audit, raw material audit & energy audit, health & safety audit, conservation of energy and water, waste minimization, economic benefits of environmental audit

3.       Sustainable development & environmental management, carrying capacity based developmental planning process, regional EIA and preparation of regional EMP, concept of carrying capacity, assimilative and supportive capacity, development of action plans for critical environmental areas, training needs in environmental management and environmental education programmes. Environmental Management in India.

4.       Resource Management

          Types of resources - terrestrial (soil) resources, minerals, plants & animals (biotic) resources, marine, fresh water, air & bioenergy resources, resource utilization-renewable and non-renewable resources, optimal use of resources, depletion of resources – causes & effects.

          Human Resources – importance of socio-economic studies in developmental projects.


1)       Environmental Impact Assessment : Rau & Woofes.

2)       Environmental Impact Assessment : W.F. Canter, McGraw Hill.

3)       Proceedings of Indo-British Workshop on EIA of Petrochemical Industries and Environmental Audit, Jan. 1994, IAEM, Nagpur.

4)       Handbook on Pollution Control Acts, Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi.

5)       The New Environmental Age by R.K.Sapra, S.Bhardwaj, Ashish Pub. House, New Delhi.


3 SCEE 2                                                                                    AIR POLLUTION & CONTROL


I         General principles, Biosphore, Air Environment, Air pollution, Primary and Secondary pollutants, Removal processes, sources of pollution, Averging time air quality.

II       Particulate matter : Natural & manmade, viable & nonviable, effects & removal mechanism, particle size distribution.

III      Gaseous pollutants : CO, CO2, Ozone, SO2, H2S, Sources and effects on vegetation materials and Humans,  photo-chemical smog, secondary pollutants : NOx, Atmospheric reactions & Scavenging process.

IV      Meteorology : Solar radiation, Heat balance, green house effect, Wind velocity, wind rose, turbulance, wind profile, humidity, temperature.

V       Atmospheric Stability : Lapse rate, inversion : flume shape, Max mixing depth. Transport of air pollutants.


VI      Air pollution monitoring : Sampling, monitoring equipments, stackmonitoring, quality surveillance, source monitoring, Ambient air quality.

VII     Air pollution control : Various methods of control of particulate matter in industries and design of gravity seperator, cyclone seperator, filters, electrostatic precipitor, absorption devices, scrubbers, combustion devices, control of gaseous emission and  process emission controls.

VIII   Air quality modeling : Modelling, Air quality mathematical models, Gaussion  Dispersion model, plume rise, application of models.

IX      Pollution from mobile sources, problems, effects, testing and control, preventive measures.

X       Other types of pollutions:

          1)Noise pollution 2) Radioactive pollution 3) Thermal pollution, Nature, sources, effects and control measures.


1)       Air Pollution, Vol. I To IV – A. C. Stern.

2)       Fundamentals Of Air Pollution – Stern, Wohlers, Bouble, Lower.

3)       Air Pollution & Control – P. P. Mowli & N. Venkata Subbayya.

4)       Air Pollution – Rao & Rao.

5)       Air Pollution Sienfeld J. H.

6)       Air Pollution – Perkins.

7)       Air Quality Monitoring – A Course Manual By Neeri, 19981.

8)       Mechanical handbook

9)       Mechanical Handling - Jolley, F. Raby, & H. Walder.

10)     Material Handling Engineering – Sayre, Haward S.

3 SCEE 3                                                                                                PRACTICALS

1)       To measure CO % & NO % of the exhaust gases from vehicles or gasoline engine.

2)       Determination of SPM, RSPM, SO2

3)       Statistical Calculations of observed air pollution data.

4)       Design of Bag filter for controlling dust pollution in particular industry – case study.

5)       Design of cyclone seperator.

6)       Study of Air Quality Monitoring Instruments & Equipments.

7)       Determination of wind velocity, wind direction, temperature, cloud cover, humidity & preparation of windrose diagram.


3 scee 4                                                                                                design problem

          A project report on Design of Complete Water Treatment Plant or Sewage Treatment Plant or Industrial Waste Water Treatment Plant including detailed drawing and cost economics will be prepared by a group of not more than 3 Students.

          Examination will be based on Viva-Voce on report submitted.



4SCEE1                                                                         INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER TREATMENT


          Problem of Industrial Waste Water:

          Variation in quality and quantity of industrial waste water. Effects of discharge of industrial waste water on streams; land and municipal sewers. Benefits of water pollution control by doing treatment of industrial waste.

          Indian standards for discharge of treated waste water on land, into municipal sewer and natural water courses.

          Sampling procedure.Experimental evaluation of physico-chemical or biological treatment methods for treatment of the wastewater.

          Approaches to minimization of problem of industrial waste water, Good house-keeping, equalization, neutralization, precipitation, mixing of different effluent streams, recycle of effluent streams, process modifications in terms of raw materials or chemicals used general approach to planning of industrial waste water treatment and disposal. Cleaner Technologies of production for waste minimization.


          Different aspects and choices of various alternatives such as:

1)       Treating different effluent streams separately.

2)       Treating different streams jointly after mixing them partly or fully.

3)       Including/excluding domestic waste along with the industrial waste.

          General approach for handling and treatment of industrial waste water with following special characteristics.

          Shock loads, presence of colours, toxic metal/ions, refractory substances, e.g. A B S and other detergents, growth inhibiting substances such as insecticides, waste rich in nutrients (N.P.K. etc.), waste rich in oil & grease, high suspended solids, high BOD, high temperature, acidity, alkalinity etc.

          Experimental evaluation of physico-chemical or biological treatment processes for treatment of the waste water.

          Process line diagrams, characteristics and treatment of industrial waste of: -

          Pulp and paper, textile, tennery, food, Cannings, sugar mill, distillery, dairy, pharmaceutical, electroplating etc. industries.


1)       Waste Water Treatment, Disposal and Reuse-Mctcalf and Eddy.

2)       Pollution Control in Process Industries – S.P.Mahajan.

3)       Liquid Waste of Industry – Theory, Practices and Treatment Nemcrow.

4)       Industrial Water Pollution Control- W.W.Eekenfelder.

5)       Natural Systems for Waste Management and Treatment – S.C. Reed, E.J. Middlebrooks, R.W.Crites.

6)       The Treatment of Industrial Waste – Purse lievre E.B.

7)       Water Quality Management by W.W. Eckenfelder

8)       Biological Treatment of Waste Waters : W.W. Enkenfelder


4 SCEE 2                                                                       ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

                                                                                        AND SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


1.       Concept of environment and scope of sanitation in rural areas. Principles involved in   the protection of public health by engineering measures to control the environment             Rural water supply –Selection and development of preferred sources of  water, sanitary considerations for location and construction of wells, springs, infiltration wells, radial wells and infiltration galleries, bacterial travel in soils.

2.       Imrovised methods and compact systems of treatment of surface and groundwater. Specific problems in rural water supply and treatment e.g. iron, manganese, fluorides etc.

3.       Treatment and disposal of wastewater / sullage, Various methods of collection and disposal of nightsoil , On-site sanitation system and community latrines.Simple wastewater treatment system for rural areas and small communities such as stabilization ponds, septic tanks, soakage pits etc.

4.       Swimming Pool sanitation – quality standards, algae control

          Fly and Mosquito Control – destruction of adult flies and prevention of fly breeding.

          Drainage filling, digging, dewatering, chemical measures.

5.       Food Sanitation – Public consideration, Causes of food poisoning, food storage, 

          Restaurant sanitation, Slaughter house sanitation, Milk plant sanitation, Sanitation of Hospital.


6.       Problems and impacts of solid waste in developing countries; Sources, types and composition of Municipal solid waste, quantity estimation and forecast, Management systems and planning.

7.       Characteristics of solid waste – Sampling – physical , chemical and biological analysis. Sources , types and composition of industrial hazardous and toxic wastes, Treatment and disposal methods.

8.       Collection of solid waste: On site handling and processing; Collection systems and service; Analysis of collection systems, collection routes; Management issues and concerns.

          Transfer and transport, design requirements.

9.       Composting – Process microbiology, Aerobic and anaerobic composting, parameters affecting, Design considerations, compost control, engineering design and operations.

          Sanitary Landfill – Process mechanism, Classification, types, siting considerations, engineering design and operations.

10.     Incineration -  Process details, classification, types, siting considerations, Energy  recovery, Pyrolysis, engineering design and operations.

          Biogas from solid wastes, convertion of solid wastes to protein, Legislation and byelaws in solid waste management, Solid Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 2001.

Reference / Text Books:

·         Ehlens and Steel; Municipal and Rural Sanitation.

·         Wagner E. G. & Lanoik J.N; Water supply for rural areas and small communities, Geneve : WHO,

·         Manual for rural Water Supply, Helvetas Swiss Corporation, Divyajyoti Prakashan, Jodhpur.

·         G. Techbanoglous, Elliasen; Solid waste Engineering, Principles and management issues, Mc-Graw Hill Book Co.

·         Bhide A.D and Sudaresan B.B; Solid waste Management in developing Countries, INSDOC, New Delhi.

·         D. Joseph Hagerty, Joseph L. Pavoni & John E. Heer Jr.; Solid Waste Management, Van Norstrand Reinhold Environmental Engineering Science..

·         Frank Kreith; Handbook of solid waste Management, Mc-Graw Hill Inc.

·         Frank Flintoff; Management of solid waste in developing countries, WHO publication.


4 CEE 3                                          Elective



1.       Introduction to Hazardous Waste :-

          Definition, Problems, general awareness, Industry and Government’s perspective. Risk Assessments, Environmental legislation.

2.       Hazardous waste characterization and site Treatment.

          Introduction, study of characterization, Assessment of  Hazardous sites, waste minimization and Resource Recovery, chemical , physical and biological treatment to Hazardous waste. Thermal process.

3.       Transportation of Hazardous wastes :-

          Introduction of Hazardous wastes :-

          Hazardous Wastes (Handling, Storage & Management) Rules, 1989 of MoEF.

          Introduction, container for Hazardous waste, bulk transport, Non bulk transport.

4.       Groundwater contamination :-

          Effect on human health, Historical uses and abuses, hydrology, Detection , Control and Mitigation of groundwater contamination.

5.       Process Techniques and Disposal :-

          Selecting the process, siting the facility, integrated land fill system  as Disposal sites, Developing a new facility, operating a landfill.


6.       Basic Disaster Management Aspects.:-

          The significance of Disaster, the Disaster threat, National Disaster  Management policy, major Requirement for coping with Dissester Management cycle, Disaster and National Development, Disaster legislation, counter disaster  resources. International Disaster Orgarnisation, utilisation of Resources.

7.       Long-Term Measures :-

          Prevention, Mitigation.

8.       Major factors for occurance of Disaster impact :-